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A study of conflicts through time, and across the regions of the world
Dedicated to my parents, and to the late great Don Featherstone (d. 2013) whose books introduced me to military history at a young age, this is a site for keen amateur military historians who, when visiting any particular region of the globe, like to be aware of the conflicts which have been fought there over the centuries. It will also appeal to the child in all of us, who enjoys reading of momentous deeds in far-off and exotic places. But it is not intended to glamourise war; many of the texts on the site reveal the ultimate futility of the activity. There is a fundamental question however which arises in all study of war: why do they do it? If this site can provide some tentative answers, then it will have gone far above and beyond my ambitions for it. I am greatly indebted to webmasters who have preceded me, but hope that they find this overview useful in their own endeavours. 
soldiers thru the ages
military glossary

Some battles in deserts: 

Talas River? Kasserine Pass Chaco War Polisario Toyota Wars in Chad Dharfur Omdurman & Khartoum campaigns German colonial campaigns in Namibia Raphia Battle of the Pyramids Tobruk Wadi Halfa Alamo Apache Wars Mongol campaigns Alexanders march through the Great Salt Desert of Persia Zama Bagradas First Battle of El Alamein Second Battle of El Alamein Battle of Asal Uttar Battle of Longewala Battle of Basantar Somalian Civil Wars Somali ¿ Ethiopian War Ethiopian ¿ Eritrean War Italian colonial campaigns in Horn of Africa French Foreign Legion in West Africa Pacific War 1879 and other campaigns in the Atacama desert of Chile Gaugamela Daras Carrhae Lawrence of Arabia Qadisiya Arsuf Hattin Sinai campaigns 1973 etc. Suez campaign Egyptian campaigns against Punt and Nubia 
 From: worldwide 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 War Chronology 13000 BC to 2004 Thursday, 1/25/07, 9:26 AM 
 From: global 
 Web Site:  TWT 
 aerial warfare Wednesday, 11/8/06, 4:13 AM 
 Web Site:  TWT 
 Lesser known battles of the world Monday, 4/24/06, 10:43 AM 
 Web Site:  the war tourist 
 Battles of the world Tuesday, 3/28/06, 4:33 AM 
 basic details of about 1000 land and sea battles here. 
 Web Site:  thewartourist 
 Wars Of The World Tuesday, 3/28/06, 4:14 AM 
 Abyssinian War Ethiopia Abyssinian War Italy Afghan Pakistan War Algerian War France Algerian War America Mexico War America Mexico War USA America Spain War America Spain War USA Angevin War France Angevin War Germany Angles Sth Britain War England Anglo Afghan War, 3rd Afghanistan Anglo Boer War, 2nd Great Britain Anglo Boer War, 2nd South Africa Anglo Dutch Wars, 1st England Anglo Dutch Wars, 1st Holland Anglo Dutch Wars, 2nd England Anglo Dutch Wars, 2nd France Anglo Dutch Wars, 2nd Germany Anglo Dutch Wars, 2nd Holland Anglo Dutch Wars, 3rd England Anglo Dutch Wars, 3rd France Anglo Dutch Wars, 3rd Germany Anglo Dutch Wars, 3rd Holland Anglo Dutch Wars England Anglo Spanish War England Arab Israeli War Jordan Argentina Uruguay War Argentina Argentina Uruguay War Italy Austria Prussia War Austria Austria Prussia War Germany Austria Turkey War Austria Austria Turkey War Germany Austria Turkey War Great Britain Austria Turkey War Poland Austria Turkey War Turkey Aztec War Spain Balkan War, 2nd Romania Balkan Wars, 1st Bulgaria Balkan Wars, 1st Greece Balkan Wars, 1st Romania Balkan Wars, 1st Serbia Balkan Wars, 1st Turkey Balkan Wars, 2nd Romania Balkan Wars, 2nd Turkey Balkan Wars Great Britain Balkan Wars Serbia Balkan Wars Turkey Bengal War Great Britain Bernicia Deira War England Bernicia North'ria War England Bishops War, 1st England Bishops War, 1st Scotland Bishops War, 2nd England Bishops War, 2nd Scotland Black Hawk War USA Boer War Boer War Germany Boer War Great Britain Boer War South Africa Bohemian War, 2nd Germany Bolivian Guerrilla War Boshin War Japan Brazil Argentina War Brazil Britain Afghan War Afghanistan Britain Afghan War Great Britain Britain China War Great Britain Britain Egypt War Great Britain Britain India War Great Britain Britain Zulu War South Africa Briton Angles War England Briton Bernicia War England Briton Jute War England Briton Saxon War England Brittany Dynastic War France Bulgaria Serbia War Burmese War, 1st Great Britain Burmese War, 2nd Myanmar Byzantine War Greece Byzantine War Turkey Carlist War Spain Carnatic War, 1st Great Britain Carnatic War, 2nd Great Britain Castille Granada War Spain Chaco War Great Britain China Japan War China China Japan War Japan China Manchuria War China China Mongols War Mongolia China Mongol War Mongolia China SE Asia War China China Taiwan War China China Taiwan War USA China Tibet War China China Turkey War China Civil War Afghanistan Civil War Angola Civil War Armenia Roman Empire Civil War Austria Hungary Civil War Bavaria Germany Civil War Chad Civil War Chile Civil War China Civil War Costa Rica Civil War Denmark Denmark Civil War Dom Rep Dominican Rep Civil War Empire Czech Rep Civil War Empire France Civil War Empire Germany Civil War England France Civil War England Civil War England Germany Civil War England Scotland Civil War France Civil War Germany Civil War Gold Coast Gold Coast Civil War Greece Civil War Holland Civil War Honduras Civil War Hungary Civil War India Civil War Indonesia Civil War Iraq Iraq Civil War Ireland Civil War Italy Civil War Japan Civil War Mexico Civil War Mexico USA Civil War Mongolia Civil War Muslims Iraq Civil War Myanmar Civil War Nicaragua USA Civil War Nigeria Civil War Northumbria England Civil War Norway Civil War Poland Civil War Roman Empire Civil War Roman Empire Germany Civil War Russia Civil War Scotland England Civil War Scotland Civil War Somalia Civil War Spain Civil War Spain Germany Civil War Sweden Civil War Syria Roman Empire Civil War USA Civil War Vietnam Civil War Wales Civil War Wessex England Congo War, 1st Crimean War Austria Crimean War France Crimean War Great Britain Crimean War Italy Crimean War Russia Crimean War Turkey Cvil War Poland Poland Cyprus Genoa War Cyprus War Dalriada Bernicia War England Dalriada Bernicia War Sc 
 Web Site:  World History Database 
 Military disasters & blunders Thursday, 3/2/06, 10:36 AM 
 Web Site: 
 Battles by country Thursday, 3/2/06, 10:26 AM 
 A growing list here, which appears to be imported from Wikipedia. Especially comprehensive at present for Belgium, Russia, Ukraine, Venezuela, Romania, and Poland 
 Web Site: 
 Mountain warfare Thursday, 3/2/06, 10:20 AM 
 Web Site: 
 Battles by country Wednesday, 3/1/06, 10:58 AM 
 Wikipedia is now host to a very eclectic and fast growing collection of battle descriptions from some of the more exotic empires and regions of world history, including Peru, Costa Rica, Kongo, Mali, Azerbaijan, the Timurid Caliphate and the Vijayanagar Empire. Watch this space ¿and, better still, contribute some material ¿ this is a collective endeavour!! 
 From: Worldwide 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 Great battles of history Friday, 6/10/05, 6:48 AM 
 Web Site:  Robert Radford 
 Lists of battles by country Thursday, 3/10/05, 10:52 AM 
 A most extensive and growing list on this collaborative encyclopedia site [see also Wikipedia], although only a few countries sparsely covered at present. 
 Web Site:  Indopedia 
 Lists of wars and battles Thursday, 3/10/05, 10:45 AM 
 A most extensive and growing list on this collaborative encyclopedia site [see also Wikipedia];has worldwide coverage including wars in New Zealand, France, Guinea and Romania to name but a few 
 Web Site:  Indopedia 
 Ancient battlefields as they look now Thursday, 3/10/05, 10:03 AM 
 20 or more battlefields photographed here in glorious colour 
 From: Mediterranean 
 Web Site:  Livius 
 Acoustical shadows and ¿Marching to the sound of the guns¿ Tuesday, 3/8/05, 6:55 AM 
 ¿Students of military history know that acoustic refraction and unusual audibility have often played significant roles in the outcome of battles. Before electrical and wireless communications became common on the tactical level, the sound of battle was often the quickest and most efficient method by which a commander could judge the course of a battle. Troop dispositions were often made based on the relative intensity of the sounds from different locations on the battlefield. Unusual acoustics due to atmospheric conditions or to terrain are sometimes given the catch-all name "acoustic shadows." The first recorded incidence of the phenomenon occurred during the Four-Day Battle in 1666. The naval battle was fought between the coasts of England and Holland, and sounds of the battle were heard clearly at many points throughout England but not at intervening points. Passengers on a yacht positioned between the battle and England heard nothing. Guns fired at the funeral of Queen Victoria in London in 1901 were heard in Scotland, but not across a wide region in between. The German bombardment of Antwerp in World War I was heard clearly for a 30-mile radius, then beyond 60 miles from the Belgian city, but not in between¿ ¿thus commences this fascinating essay from a rather unusual source, which concentrates on incidents in the ACW. 
 From: America 
 Web Site:  Acoustical Society of America 
 Large battle list Wednesday, 12/29/04, 10:05 AM 
 a very large listing of battles, with some good breakdowns too, eg Chinese battles, although the BATTLES GEOGRAPHICALLY SECTION is at present skeletal only. Presumably many contributors to the site. 
 From: Global 
 Chronology of 2500 battles Tuesday, 12/14/04, 12:05 PM 
 includes naval engagements 
 From: worldwide 
 Web Site:  The War Tourist 
 War heroes Tuesday, 12/14/04, 11:06 AM 
 some well known ¿heroes¿ are listed here!! 
 Web Site: 
 Some interesting battles Friday, 7/23/04, 9:54 AM 
 Web page Date Battle 1868 Alcolea 1364 Auray 1866 Cunpayti 1826 Ganja 1479 Guinegate 1862 Luka 0351 Mursa 1864 Opequan 1780 Perembacum 1185 Strymon River 1408 Tongres 1848 Veleneze Africa 1896 Dongola Africa 1882 Tel El Kebir Balkans 1620 Jassy Balkans 1877 Loftcha Balkans 1679 Zenta Eurasia 1769 Dneister River Eurasia 1622 Kotzin Eurasia 1628 Wolgast Europe 0533 Ad Decium Europe 0394 Aquileia Far East 1850 Inchon Far East 1937 P¿inghshinkuan Far East 1876 Shirogawa France 1589 Arques France 1544 Boulogne France 1649 Palais Gallien France 1211 and 1632 Castelnaudary France 1870 Chevilly India 1781 Sholingur Italy 1448 Caravaggio Italy 1515 Marignano Italy 1260 Monte Aperto Italy 0489 Verona Italy 1860 Castelfidardo North America 1813 Erie North America 1758 Grants Hill North America 1781 Lynn Haven Bay North America 1814 Plattsburg 
 From: global 
 world battles from A to Z Thursday, 1/8/04, 5:38 AM 
 several thousands listed here, courtesy of Tonto 
 Web Site:  world battles from A to Z 
 Ancient Mediterranean battles Tuesday, 7/8/03, 11:46 AM 
 Marathon Ilios Plataea Carducian Defile Ectabana Thermopylae Day 1 Admagetobriga Platea Thermopylae Day 2 Veni Vidi Vici Darius Trilogy - Part 1 Thermopylae Day 3 Epipolae Darius Trilogy - Part 2 Leuctra Darius Trilogy - Part 3 First Mantinea Maiden Castle Canaxa Second Mantinea Crassus in Carrhae Nemea Second Coronea Caesar Avenges Crassus Alesia Order vs Chaos Carthago I Plains of Troy Dastira Battle of Gondor Pharsalus Plain Hannibal at Tagus Hamilcar's Defile Battle of Utica Battle of Tunes Hannibal at the Rhone Hannibal at the White Rock Hannibal at the Ticinus Hannibal at Chevelu Pass Hannibal - Battle of Geronium Hannibal - First Battle at Nola Hannibal - Second Battle at Nola Hannibal - Third Battle at Nola Hannibal - First Battle at Capua Hannibal - First Battle at Herdonia Hannibal - Second Battle at Capua Hannibal - Second Battle at Herdonia Hannibal - Battle of Numistro Battle of Crannon Battle of Ipsus Battle of Corupedion Battle of Lisymacheia Battle of the Elephants 
 From: Ancient Mediterranean 
 15 Decisive Battles Of The Western World Tuesday, 7/8/03, 11:27 AM 
 the complete text of c 150pp is here 
 From: Metaurus to Valmy 
 Web Site:  Creasy 
 All Empires Tuesday, 7/8/03, 10:46 AM 
 a wonderfully eccentric but beautifully graphic site covering some exotic subjects such as Zand, Samanid and Gokturk Empires. Check it out!! 
 Web Site:  All Empires 
 Ancmed list Wednesday, 4/9/03, 5:05 AM 
 This email list is intended for those interested in military history of the ancient and medieval periods, up to about 1500 AD. Discussion of any aspect of ancient and medieval wargaming, wargames rules and history is welcome. Although set up by the Society of Ancients, the list is open to all, not just SoA members. 
 Web Site:  SOA 
 1up travel Friday, 12/13/02, 7:03 AM 
 european and pacific theaters - including many from China and SE Asia 
 Web Site:  maps of World War 2 
 1421- The Year China Discovered The World. Tuesday, 11/19/02, 5:37 AM 
 This website has been set up to coincide with the launch of the landmark historical work "1421- The Year China Discovered The World". The site contains information about the four major voyages of the ocean going junks around the world, 60 odd years before Columbus, and a searchable database of new evidence supporting the key theories. You can contribute evidence via the contact form or join the messageboard and mailing list. Latest news: UK Launch of 1421.., Shipwreck found in Australia.., Excavation of the Newport Round Tower. 
 From: Global. 
 Web Site:  Gavin Menzies, Captain, Royal Navy 
 Battles 1400bc - present Wednesday, 11/13/02, 11:42 AM 
 a goodly number of battles are already covered here, and u can add your own details to the others, since this is an interactive encyclopedia!! A truly fantastic collaborative resource for military historians. 
 From: global 
 Web Site:  wikipedia 
 Zheng He's voyages and probable colonisation of the Americas Thursday, 11/7/02, 3:30 AM 
 In 1421, 71 years before Columbus, and following in the footsteps of the earlier Viking explorers, the Ming dynasty navigator Zheng He [also known as Cheng Ho] and his associates departed in a fleet of multimasted junks to explore, settle and build cities in Arabia, Australasia, Oceania, and probably in the Americas, North and South. Some evidence of these feats was destroyed by rivals at the Ming court. The remaining evidence was routinely ignored for many years by conformist academic historians, not wishing to make waves, until the British Daily Telegraph published the evidence collected by the retired submarine commander Gavin Menzies in March 2002. The following sites are informative: Maritime Lanka - The Trilingual Inscription of Admiral Zheng He Wikipedia - Zheng He Activities Related to the 600th Anniversary of Zheng He - The Ming Dynasty: Zheng He and his Voyages China the Beautiful - The Great Chinese Mariner Zheng He MSN Encarta - Zheng He - The Next Asian Journey 2001 Admiral of the Western Seas - Cheng Ho Xinhua News Agency - Chinese Explorer May Redraw Map of History NOVA Online - Sultan's Lost Treasure, Ancient Chinese Explorers 
 From: Ming China 
 Web Site:  Zheng He's voyages and probable colonisation of the Americas 
 German colonial warfare Tuesday, 11/5/02, 5:38 AM 
 this site has numerous good links, but is in German!! 
 Web Site:  German colonial warfare 
 five British battles, 1805-1951 Friday, 11/1/02, 10:19 AM 
 Trafalgar to Korea five British battles, 1805-1951 UK: covers also Egypt 1882, D Day, & the Crimea. This site was created by the Public Record Office. It forms part of their Pathways to the Past online exhibitions and learning packages section. It provides access to information on the causes, nature and consequences of five important British battles: Trafalgar (1805), Crimea (1854), Egypt (1882), D-Day landings and the Second World War (1944) and the Korean War (1951). Each section includes analysis of the conflict plus access to digitised images of primary source documents from the Public Record Office collections. These include: government papers, original letters, articles and eye-witness accounts. Film and video footage of the conflicts is also accessible. The site also includes a section which provides details for members of the public on how to trace British military service records. 
 From: UK 
 Web Site:  five British battles, 1805-1951 
 History Of The Rifled Cannon Thursday, 10/31/02, 9:33 AM 
 The Rifled Cannon Is Not As Recent A Discovery As People Are Generally Inclined To Suppose. There Is One At Berlin Bearing Upon Its Escutcheon The Unclear Date Of Either 1564 Or 1664 The Year In Which It Was Built. It Is Made With Forged Iron, Has Thirteen Grooves Inside, And A Screw At Its Breech. Models Of The Same Kind And Forged In The Same Country, Are Also To Be Seen At Munich And In Other German Cities. Studies On The Construction Of Rifled Cannon Were Not Made In Germany Alone, But Were Also The Object Of Much Attention In England And France. Writers On Gunnery Speak Of A Two-Pounder Rifled Gun, Tried For The First Time In England In The Year 1776 For The Purpose Of Reducing To Obedience The American Rebels. 
 Web Site:  The Artilleryman Magazine 
 Indonesian history Thursday, 10/31/02, 7:37 AM 
 this is a detailed and visually attractive timeline of Indonesian history from earliest times. See also the following sites: Jakarta - Charles's Indonesia Page Irian Jaya Embassy of Indonesia Sights & Sounds 1UpInfo - Indonesian History Indonesia - Historical Timeline Indonesian Heritage The Jakarta Post THE HISTORY OF INDONESIA Indonesia - World History Archive Yayasan Orphans International Indonesia - Indonesian History 
 From: Indonesia 
 Web Site:  sejarah Indonesia 
 Resources for the study of military history Wednesday, 10/30/02, 10:52 AM 
 From: here 
 Web Site:  Blood on the Grass Resource page 
 Women at war through history Wednesday, 10/30/02, 10:50 AM 
 Now here's a site to stir up some trouble!! Throughout history war and fighting have been seen as men's activities, however women have always been involved in battles and sieges, not to mention duels, prizefights and so on. The most common occasion on which women would take part in battles was when their home, castle or town was attacked. A medieval lady would have expected to take charge of defence in her husband's absence. See for example Matilda of Tuscany. Some exceptional women like Boudiccia and Joan of Arc also led attacking armies. There were also a few women disguised as male soldiers or sailors through the ages. 
 From: out of the kitchen!! 
 Web Site:  Women at war through history 
 Dutch, Portuguese and other minor European colonial possessions Tuesday, 10/29/02, 11:58 AM 
 Anywhere on the coasts of Asia, America and Africa you can find a fort, a church, a geographical name or a family name, that come from Portugal. These are the remains of the first European country that explored the world in search of spices and souls. Afonso de Albuquerque's dream, was an infusion of Portuguese blood in each of the colonies. As the Dutch Governor Antonio Van Diemen said in 1642 : "Most of the Portuguese in Asia look upon this region as their fatherland, and think no more about Portugal". In XVth century a small nation as Portugal began to explore the Atlantic ocean , since 1415 (conquest of Ceuta, Morocco) the Portuguese explored the African's coasts in search of a road to the East; and in 1487 Bartolomeu Dias doubled the cape of Good Hope. After ten years (1497-1499) Vasco de Gama arrived in India (18 May 1498), and opened a new trading route between Europe and Asia. This small nation was the ruler of the Indian ocean for about 150 years and the Portuguese language was for more than 250 years the trading language (lingua franca) of the Asiatic coasts. At the beginning of the XVII century another small nation, the United Provinces of Netherlands took the place of Portugal. The United Provinces with the West and the East India companies the WIC (West Indische Companie) and the VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) ruled the scene for nearly 150 years, until the coming of the English power. Amsterdam was the commercial and financial capital of the whole Europe and The Netherlands was the leading commercial nation. 
 From: global 
 Web Site:  Dutch, Portuguese and other minor European colonial possessions 
 Two battles of the Maori Wars Tuesday, 10/29/02, 10:35 AM 
 This account of battlefield visits includes the battle of Turuturu-Mokai "The Place Where Heads are Impaled on Stakes" !! 
 From: New zealand 
 Web Site:  Two battles of the Maori Wars 
 Military History in Danish Monday, 10/28/02, 7:20 AM 
 this DANISH LANGUAGE site provides an extensive list of battle accounts and international military biographies, plus a short list of wars worldwide. The material is being added gradually to what eventually should be a good overview of the subject. As at Oct 2002, perhaps 10% of the material was present. 
 From: Denmark 
 Web Site:  Military History in Danish 
 other sites on this subject 
 General history links Monday, 10/28/02, 6:59 AM 
 Thehistorynet History Channel The History Place Spartacus Educational Hyperhistory Online Campaign For Radical Truth In History The History Guy: Home Heritage Preservation Services A Moment In Time With Dan Roberts Historylinks 
 Web Site:  General history links 
 military history by nation Thursday, 10/24/02, 11:19 AM 
 From: global 
 Web Site:  On war 
 The harper encyclopedia of military history Thursday, 10/24/02, 11:08 AM 
 The Dupuys are the most famous family in the military history field, producing a number of very valuable works including this seminal work previously published in 1986 as "The encyclopedia of military history". 
 Web Site:  The harper encyclopedia of military history 
 The Dupuy institute Thursday, 10/24/02, 11:07 AM 
 the Dupuys are the most famous family in the military history field, producing a number of very valuable works including their seminal "ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MILITARY HISTORY", a must for the study of regional military history. 
 Web Site:  The Dupuy institute milhist links 
 Fortifications of the World Thursday, 10/24/02, 11:00 AM 
 a nicely illustrated and v extensive site 
 Web Site:  Fortifications of the World 
 Chronology of Battles AD 901 - 1905 Monday, 10/21/02, 9:44 AM 
 From: University of Erlangen 
 Web Site:  Chronology of Battles AD 901 - 1905 
 Linked overview of world history 1475-1599 Friday, 7/5/02, 5:00 AM 
 From: europe and the world 
 Web Site:  Linked overview of world history 1475-1599 
 free hosting for military websites Friday, 5/24/02, 12:48 PM 
 Web Site:  free hosting for military websites 
 Military technology timeline Tuesday, 5/21/02, 11:04 AM 
 an excellent resource by Cristobal Alvarez and 
 Web Site:  Military technology timeline 
 The War Scholar Friday, 5/17/02, 12:13 PM 
 This very colourful timeline is presented in order to give the user the ability to see what major conflicts were going on across the globe in any given year or time period. With the thousands of conflicts that man has been engaged in over the past 5,000+ years of recorded history, I have been able to include the major ones and many of the minor ones. This is an ongoing project which will take a great deal of time to finish but, in the meanwhile, it still does present some very interesting information. For each conflict, I have tried to present a link to a relevant listing at In some cases, it takes a bit of reading to find information on the conflict within the listing provided by Britannica. In addition, the listings are color coded according to the continent on which the conflict occured. My primary source of information is George C. Kohn's Dictionary of Wars. 
 Paul Halsall Friday, 5/17/02, 10:22 AM 
 The Internet History Sourcebooks are collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use. a wonderful site, with links to incredible ancient texts on the Gothic and Hunnic Wars, to name just two topics out of hundreds. it even looks much nicer than it used to!!! 
 From: Fordham University USA 
 Web Site:  The Internet History Sourcebooks
Danish Vikings in England
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Where are the great Generals buried?
Don Featherstone and the pioneers of UK wargaming in the 1960s
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