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Some far eastern battles:
  
 Zhongdu 1213 Manchuria Fareast Yangzou 1275 Fareast Tuul Gol 1414 Mongolia Fareast Shizugataka 1583 Japan Fareast Kangwa island I 1866 NW Of Seoul Fareast Fushimi 1868 Japan Fareast Kangwa island II 1871 NW Of Seoul Fareast Tangjin 1894 Korea Fareast Changchu 1948 China Fareast Kilin 1948 China Fareast Shenyang 1948 China Fareast Kaifeng 1948 China Fareast Loyang 1948 China Fareast Yuzhou 1949 China Fareast Tientsin 1949 China Fareast Beijing / Peking 1949 China Fareast Ch¿eng ¿ tu 263 North of the Yangtse in central china Fareast 
  
 
 A few battles in and around China Saturday, 1/27/07, 7:59 AM 
  
 1928 Japan defeats the Guomindang at Ji'nan & occupies the Shandong Peninsular Zhongdu 1213 Manchuria Fareast Yangzou 1275 Fareast Tuul Gol 1414 Mongolia Fareast Shizugataka 1583 Japan Fareast Kangwa island I 1866 NW Of Seoul Fareast Fushimi 1868 Japan Fareast Kangwa island II 1871 NW Of Seoul Fareast Tangjin 1894 Korea Fareast Changchu 1948 China Fareast Kilin 1948 China Fareast Shenyang 1948 China Fareast Kaifeng 1948 China Fareast Loyang 1948 China Fareast Yuzhou 1949 China Fareast Tientsin 1949 China Fareast Beijing / Peking 1949 China Fareast Ch¿eng ¿ tu 263 North of the Yangtse in central china Major General Kolpakovsky, the victor at Uzun-Agach 1871 a Russian expedition invaded the Chinese province of Ili... Fearing that the rebellion might spill over into the new Russian territories east of Tashkent and south of Zake Balk hash. Kaufman had dispatched a preemptive strike against the rebels. The Russians treated the occupation of Ili, or Kuldzha, as a temporary measure and reassured the Chinese and the Europeans that the Tsar's forces would remain only until the Chinese were capable of re-occupying that and other rebellious western provinces. The Russians finally returned Kuldzha to Chinese control in 1883 after much diplomatic wrangling and the obtaining of concessions elsewhere. 
  
 From: Far East 
 Web Site:  World history database 
  
 
 Wars in China Saturday, 1/27/07, 7:57 AM 
  
 an extensive reference source here 
  
 Web Site:  Onwar 
  
 
 Battles of ancient China Thursday, 12/28/06, 4:07 AM 
  
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Ancient Chinese military technology Thursday, 12/28/06, 3:18 AM 
  
 ca. 400 B.C. Crossbow is developed. ca. 300 B.C. Stirrups are developed. 
  
 
 The "Three Kingdoms" of Ancient China Wednesday, 12/13/06, 11:40 AM 
  
 Wei The foundation for the kingdom of Wei was laid down by Cao Cao. Better known for its riders due to the central plains. With deserts at the western and northern edges to the central plains where Cao Cao started out his conquest. Its southern border is pretty uncertain due to the many skirmishes and war with the Wu Kingdom but most agree that the southern border is northern bank of the Yangtze river. Its capital is Xuchang and later Luoyang. Shu The Kingdom of Shu or Shu Han was founded by Liu Bei. Located in the west, it is protected by mountains to the north making it easy to defend and hard to attack. Barbarian tribes populate its southern most provinces. Its capital is Chengdu. Wu Sun Quan's short-lived elder brother Sun Ce laid down the foundation for the kingdom of Wu. Initially starting out as a small country in the southeastern part of China. It eventually grew into one which is capable of contending for power with Wei and Shu. It has natural geographical barrier which is the Yangtze river to the north where its border end. The western border which meets with the kingdom of Shu covers Jingzhou which is one of the most heavily contested piece of territory. Its capital is Jianye. 
  
 From: Singapore? 
 Web Site:  3kingdoms.net 
  
 
 The Nian or Nien rebellion 1855 - 68 Tuesday, 12/12/06, 6:37 AM 
  
 In 1855, Zhang Luoxing took direct action by launching attacks against government troops in central China. By the summer, the fast-moving Nien cavalry, well-trained and fully equipped with modern firearms, had cut the lines of communication between Beijing and the Qing armies fighting the Taiping rebels in the south. Qing forces were badly overstretched as rebellions broke out across China, allowing the Nien armies to conquer large tracts of land and gain control over economically vital areas. The Nien fortified their captured cities and used them as bases to launch cavalry attacks against Qing troops in the countryside, prompting local towns to fortify themselves against Nien raiding parties. This resulted in constant fighting which devastated the previously rich provinces of Jiangsu and Hunan. In early 1856, the Qing government sent the Mongol General Senggelinqin, who had recently crushed a large Taiping army, to defeat the Nien. Senggelinquin's army captured several fortified cities and destoyed most of the Nien infantry, and killed Zhang Luoxing himself in an ambush. However, the Nien movement survived as Taiping commanders arrived to take control of the Nien forces, and the bulk of the Nien cavalry remained intact. Senggelinquin's infantry-based army could not stop the fast moving cavalry from devastating the countryside and launching surprise attacks on Imperial troops. In late 1856, Senggelinquin and his bodyguards were ambushed by Nien troops and killed, depriving the government of its best military commander. The Qing regime sent General Zeng Guofan to take command of Imperial forces, providing him with modern artillery and weapons, purchased from the Europeans at exorbitant prices. Zeng's army set about building canals and trenches to hem in the Nien cavalry - an effective but slow and expensive method. General Zeng was relieved of command after Nien infantry broke through one of his defence fronts, and he was replaced by Generals Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, equipped with more crushingly expensive European artillery and firearms. In late 1866, the remaining Nien forces split into two, with the Eastern Army stationed in central China whilst the Western Army advanced on Peking. The Western Army was heavily defeated south- west of Peking by Qing troops, leaving large swathes of Nien territory exposed to a Qing counter- attack. By late 1867, Li Hongzhang's and Zuo Zongtang's troops had recaptured most Nien territory, and in early 1868, the remnants were crushed by the combined forces of the government's troops and the Ever Victorious Army. 
  
 From: Eastern China 
  
 
 Chinese military technology Thursday, 12/7/06, 7:11 AM 
  
 In the Qin and Han conscript armies, infantry were armed with spears, bows, and in particular crossbows (¿W), a weapon in whose technology the Chinese were superior. Even though infantry bearing shields, swords and spears existed, there is no trace of either a "phalanx" or a "legion" style of infantry fighting. Firepower was preferred, with powerful weapons such as the composite bow and crossbow. Most Chinese armour was of the scale or lamellar variety, in which overlapping leather or metal plates of varying size are sewn onto a cloth background. Such armour is relatively light and flexible at the expense of protective strength. There are very few examples of plate armour. The stirrup became widespread in China around the fifth century. But heavy armor appeared before the use of the stirrup. Though knight-like cavalry were part of the ruling class of north China during the Northern and Southern Dynasties period, China did not evolve into feudalism as occurred in the West. The later Northern and Southern Dynasties marked the return of more mobile light cavalry. One of the most important Chinese contributions to history is the formula for gunpowder, which was known in Song times. Firearms added to the defensive strength of the Great Wall and gunners were used extensively during the Ming Dynasty. But we cannot discern a "gunpowder revolution" in Chinese military history. In China, firearms remained just another missile weapon and no effort was made to standardize manufacture, reduce the number of calibers, or create new tactics and organisation to exploit the potential of a new weapons system. European mediaeval armies sacrificed speed for increased protection. China's lighter, more mobile enemies presented different challenges; slow, inaccurate gunpowder weapons were unsuitable to counter these threats, and armour penetration was already achieved with Chinese crossbows. The Chinese government thus systematically suppressed the development of early modern weapons systems" 
  
 
 Articles & discussions on East Asian history Tuesday, 12/5/06, 8:04 AM 
  
 Web Site:  John Walsh 
  
 
 Battle of Guangchang 1934 Tuesday, 12/5/06, 7:55 AM 
  
 In an attempt to protect the Jiangxi Soviet area from ¿encroachment by blockhouse¿, the Communists fought a disastrous set piece battle against KMT forces vastly superior in numbers and equipment, and led by German general Hans von Seekt sent by Hitler to contain the Communist threat. The loss here of several thousands killed and many more wounded prompted the Communists to abandon the area and to embark upon the subsequent epic ¿Long March¿. 
  
 From: Jiangxi 
  
 
 Battlesites_in_the_Yellow_River_valley_circa_350_-_250_BC Friday, 12/1/06, 10:06 AM 
  
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Battles of the far east Friday, 12/1/06, 9:40 AM 
  
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Older City and Province names: Friday, 12/1/06, 8:06 AM 
  
 Older Province names: Szechwan = Sichuan Guizhou = Kweichou Guangdong = Kwantung Jiangxi = Kiangsi Guangxi = Kwangsi Guizhou = Kweichou Zhejiang = Chekiang Anhui = Anwei Henan = Honan Jiangsu = Kiangsu Shandong = Shantung Older City names: Hangzhou = Hankow = Hanchow Beijing = Peking Guangdong = Canton or Kwantung Nanjing = Nanking 
  
 
 some battles in Korea Wednesday, 11/29/06, 10:06 AM 
  
 ¿ Battle of Baekgang ¿ Battle of Chingshanli ¿ Battle of Hwangsanbeol ¿ Oei Invasion ¿ Battle of Salsu ¿ ¿ Siege of Pyongyang (1592) 
  
 From: Korea 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
  
 
 some wars in Korea Wednesday, 11/29/06, 10:04 AM 
  
 Gaya - Silla Wars Goguryeo-Sui Wars Goryeo-Khitan Wars K Korean War M Mongol invasions of Korea S Second Goryeo-Khitan War 
  
 
 Far Eastern battles sorted geographically Wednesday, 11/29/06, 9:09 AM 
  
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Chronology of Chinese battles Wednesday, 11/29/06, 9:06 AM 
  
 detailed, with links 
  
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Battle of Khalkhin-Gol (Nomonhan)1939 Tuesday, 11/28/06, 8:55 AM 
  
 From late May 1939, the IJA, augmented by local Manchukuo elements, fought an escalating battle with the Russians under Georgi Zhukov. By 31st August, owing to superior tank guns, camouflage skills, an extreme lapse in Japanese Intelligence, and incompetent Japanese leadership, 45,000 of 60,000 Japanese were killed. The battle convinced the Japanese that they couldn't win another war against the Russians. When their Foreign Minister went to Italy and Germany to sign the Tripartite pact, he made a detour to Moscow, to sign a neutrality pact in March 1941. Upon signing, Stalin enveloped the Japanese Minister in a bear hug and said, "We are both Asiatics, Japan can now turn south." The treaty gave a free hand for Japan to turn to the Pacific, but also guaranteed the safety of Russia's deep-water ports on the Pacific. But the main effect of the Neutrality agreement was felt against the Germans. With nothing to fear from the Japanese, Zhukov was able to transfer 1700 tanks, 3 cavalry divisions, 15 rifle divisions, and 1500 aircraft to the defense of Moscow. Those troops saved the city, and the Entire Eastern Front, from surrender. 
  
 From: Inner Mongolia, 125 miles south of Hailern 
  
 
 Armies and Enemies of Ancient China Tuesday, 11/28/06, 7:33 AM 
  
 John P Greer, The Armies and Enemies of Ancient China 1027 BC - 1286 AD WRG 
  
 
 Battles of the Taiping rebellion Monday, 11/27/06, 8:10 AM 
  
 Battles of Jintian ¨C 1st Nanking ¨C Sanhe ¨C Cixi ¨C 2nd and 3rd Nanking. The Taiping Heavenly Army was composed of Hakkas and other ethnic minorities, and marked by a high level of discipline and fanaticism. They typically wore a uniform of red jackets with blue trousers and grew their hair long ¡ª in Chinese they were known as Ch¨¢ngm¨¢o (éLë, meaning "long hair"). Large numbers of women served. There was little artillery. The third battle of Nanjing incurred 100,000 casualties. 
  
 From: South China 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
  
 
 Chinese military technology Monday, 11/27/06, 5:58 AM 
  
 "China has been an advanced country in terms of military technology, losing ground only after the Industrial Revolution. In the Qin and Han conscript armies, infantry were armed with spears, bows, and in particular crossbows (¿W), a weapon in whose technology the Chinese remained superior. Even though infantry bearing shields, swords and spears existed, there is no trace of either a "phalanx" or a "legion" style of infantry fighting, preferring firepower style warfare with powerful missile weapons such as the composite bow and crossbow. Most Chinese armour was of the scale or lamellar variety, in which overlapping leather or metal plates of varying size are sewn onto a cloth background. Such armour is relatively light and flexible at the expense of protective strength. There are few examples of the larger plate armour seen in the west. The stirrup became widespread in China around the fifth century. It is associated with the development of armoured cavalrymen, mounted on an armoured (barded) horse and armed with a lance. In China, heavy armor appeared before the use of the stirrup. Though knight-like cavalry were part of the ruling class of north China during the Northern and Southern Dynasties period, China did not evolve into feudalism as occurred in the West. The later stages of the Northern and Southern Dynasties period marked the return of more mobile light cavalry. One of the most important Chinese contributions to military history is the formula for gunpowder, which was known in Song times. Firearms added to the defensive strength of the Great Wall and gunners were used extensively during the Ming Dynasty. However, historians cannot discern a "gunpowder revolution" in Chinese military history. In China, firearms remained just another missile weapon and no effort was made to standardize manufacture, reduce the number of calibers, or create new tactics and organisation to exploit the potential of a new weapons system. Competition between European powers was far more involved in shock tactics in which speed was discarded for increased protection. China's lighter, more mobile enemies gives different challenges; its enemies were far faster and lighter, thus slow, inaccurate gunpowder weapons would have been unsuitable to counter these threats. In contrast the superior penetrative power of gunpowder weapons were able to punch through any protective covering of contemporary armies, yet this advantage over China's military enemies was already achieved with Chinese crossbows. The Chinese government thus systematically suppressed the development of early modern weapons systems" 
  
 
 Chinese milhist Monday, 11/27/06, 5:53 AM 
  
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
  
 
 Chinese naval history Monday, 11/27/06, 5:50 AM 
  
 Three Kingdoms Battle of Red Cliffs Sui Dynasty Goguryeo-Sui Wars Tang Dynasty Battle of Baekgang Song Dynasty Battle of Yamen Ming Dynasty ¿ Battle of Lake Poyang ¿ Zheng He ¿ Wokou ¿ Imjin War Qing Dynasty ¿ Zheng Chengong ¿ Beiyang Fleet ¿ Opium War ¿ Sino-French War o Battle of Foochow o Sino-Japanese War o Battle of Yalu River (1894) Republic of China Republic of China Navy People's Republic of China ¿ People's Liberation Army Navy ¿ First Taiwan Strait Crisis ¿ Second Taiwan Strait Crisis ¿ Third Taiwan Strait Crisis ¿ Battle of Hoang Sa (1974) 
  
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
  
 
 The Inner Mongolian Army Friday, 11/24/06, 9:31 AM 
  
 The Inner Mongolian Army was first formed by Prince Demchugdongrub with his personal bodyguard of 900 men in 1929. Although only armed with rifles and a couple of field guns from the Mukden arsenal, a gift of the Young Marshal (Zhang Xueliang) in 1929. His force became very efficient with the assistance of advisors from the Japanese Army. It was later expanded to 9,000 - 10,000 men for the Suiyuan Campaign of 1936 with the addition of Manchukuoan Mongol irregulars from Jehol under Li Shou-hsin, and various Mongol irregular troops from Chahar, and Suiyuan, bandits and Chinese deserters. After the defeat in 1936 the army was reformed into eight small Calvary Divisions with a total force of about 20,000 men. It participated with the Japanese Army in the conquest of the rest of Inner Mongolia with the exception of Ningxia in 1937. Elements were also involved in the battle of Taiyuan. Sources:Jowett, Phillip S. , Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan¿s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England. 
  
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
  
 
 Map showing the regions shown in the lists of Chinese battles Wednesday, 11/22/06, 8:25 AM 
  
 Hover cursor over the map to see the enlargement option in the bottom right corner. 
  
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Original staff map of the Russo-Japanese War 1905-6 Monday, 10/9/06, 10:01 AM 
  
 From: Manchurian Liaoyang 
 Web Site:  TWT 
  
 
 Battle of Nanjing 1853 Friday, 9/8/06, 3:18 AM 
  
 Fanatical Christian Taiping puritan rebels, marching from south and west of the city, defeated and massacred a Manchu army of 5000, and all its dependants; they marched on to capture the city, which was only retaken by the Manchu Huan army 10 years later. 
  
 From: east central China 
  
 
 The Battle of Ch¿Eng P¿U 632 B.C Thursday, 5/25/06, 9:53 AM 
  
 ¿one of the earliest recorded battles in Chinese history¿ 
  
 From: central China 
 Web Site:  Strategy Page 
  
 
 Chinese wars and battles Monday, 3/27/06, 4:00 AM 
  
 Pages here on: ¿ First Sino¿Japanese War ¿ Korean War ¿ The Second Sino-Japanese War ¿ Sino-Vietnamese War ¿ Taiping Rebellion ¿ Battle of Changping ¿ Yellow Turban Rebellion ¿ Battle of Fei River ¿ Battle of Guandu ¿ Battle of Red Cliffs ¿ First Opium War ¿ Rebellion of the Eight Princes ¿ Rebellion of the Seven States ¿ Second Opium War ¿ Battle of Chengpu 
  
 Web Site:  Chinadetail 
  
 
 Boulger¿s short history of China Monday, 3/20/06, 8:43 AM 
  
 a Project Gutenberg ebook 
  
 From: China 
 Web Site:  a Project Gutenberg ebook 
  
 
 Chinese battles Tuesday, 3/7/06, 5:09 AM 
  
 ¿ Battle of Baiju ¿ Battle of Rehe ¿ Battle of Bi C ¿ Battle of Caishi ¿ Battle of Canton ¿ Battle of Changban ¿ Battle of Changping ¿ Battle of Chengpu ¿ Battle of Chosin Reservoir F ¿ Battle of Fancheng ¿ Battle of Fei River ¿ Battle of Foochow G Battle of Guandu G cont. ¿ Battle of Guiling H ¿ Battle of Hakusukinoe ¿ Battle of Hefei ¿ Battle of Hulao I ¿ Battle of the Imjin River J ¿ Battle of Jieqiao ¿ Battle of Jieting ¿ Battle of Jingxing ¿ Battle of Julu K ¿ Battle of Kuningtou ¿ Battle of Kunyang L ¿ Battle of Lake Poyang M ¿ Battle of Maling ¿ Battle of Muye P ¿ Battle of Pingcheng R Battle of Red Cliffs S ¿ Battle of Sarhu T ¿ First Taiwan Strait Crisis ¿ Second Taiwan Strait Crisis ¿ Battle of Talas ¿ Battle of Tao River ¿ Battle of Tong Gate ¿ Tumu Crisis W ¿ Battle of Wei River ¿ Wu Zhang Plains X ¿ Battle of Xiangyang ¿ Battle of Xiaoting Y ¿ Battle of Yalu River (1894) ¿ Battle of Yamen ¿ Battle of Yanling Z ¿ Battle of Zhennan Pass 
  
 Web Site:  Wiki 
  
 
 Military history of China Monday, 2/27/06, 10:55 AM 
  
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
  
 
 The Battle of Talas AD 751 Friday, 2/24/06, 5:14 AM 
  
 Tang Chinese infantry were routed by Arab cavalry near the bank of the River Talas after the supporting Qarluq mercenaries defected to the Abbasids and cut off the infantry from the rest of the Chinese troops. The commander of the Tang forces, Gao Xianzhi, escaped. The defeat resulted in the rebellion of An Lushan (The Anshi Rebellion) (¿À ¿j¿V¿ª) from 756 to 763. The exact location of the battle has not been confirmed but is believed to be in Kyrgyzstan 
  
 From: Kyrgyzstan? 
  
 
 Battle of Shanhaikuan 1644 Thursday, 2/9/06, 10:44 AM 
  
 Outside this fortress, which appears to have guarded a mountain pass, the Manchus defeated the Han Chinese under Li-Cheng and established their dynasty. Sources for Chinese military history: 1. Albert Chan, The Glory and Fall of the Ming Dynasty 1982. 2. Cai Dong Fan, Qing Shi Yan Yi (The History of the Qing) 3. Chris Peers, Warlords of China 700 BC to AD 1662 1988. 4. Frederick Wakeman, The Great Enterprise 5. The History of Ancient Wars in China, in at least 15 Volumes 6. Journal of Asian Studies. 
  
 Web Site:  China Defense 
  
 
 Battle of Huai Hai 1948 Thursday, 2/9/06, 10:20 AM 
  
 In 1948 the Communist People's Liberation Army under Yu Ming won a decisive victory over Chiang Kai- shek's Nationalist Guomindang (GMD) forces near Bengbu, opening the way to Nanking & Shanghai. Bengbu has always been a hub of water and land communications in Anhui province, and a major distribution centre for the Huai basin. The name means clam wharf and echoes its former reputation as a center of the freshwater pearl fishery. 
  
 From: Near Bengbu, 120 km north of Hefei, on the Huai River. 
  
 
 Chinese military history site Thursday, 2/9/06, 10:15 AM 
  
 This is thought to be an official PLA site, but in accord with ¿communist capitalism¿ they sell a DVD with 42,000+ images, apparently from their regular magazine, for $20 postpaid by VISA credit card. 
  
 From: China 
 Web Site:  China Defense 
  
 
 General Han Xin Wednesday, 2/8/06, 10:44 AM 
  
 A famed general of the second century BC 
  
 From: China 
 Web Site:  the Wartourist 
  
 
 The Russo-Japanese War to July 1904 Wednesday, 3/23/05, 10:35 AM 
  
 From: Manchuria 
 Web Site:  The War Tourist 
  
 
 A to Z of Samurai battles Wednesday, 3/23/05, 10:28 AM 
  
 what appears to be a thoroughly comprehensive list of very detailed descriptions 
  
 From: Japan 
 Web Site:  Samurai Archives 
  
 
 30 articles on Japanese history Wednesday, 3/23/05, 10:06 AM 
  
 ...most of these on military subjects, and there's a huge list of Samurai battles here as well!! 
  
 From: Nippon 
 Web Site:  Samurai Archives 
  
 
 Battle of Nagashino 1575 Wednesday, 3/23/05, 9:39 AM 
  
 In 1543, a Chinese ship carrying Portuguese was wrecked on Tanegashima island. Local seignior, Tanegashima Tokitaka bought 2 arquebuses from the Portuguese and asked a blacksmith to imitate them. Japan being in a civil war period (Sengoku jidai), this new weapon spread quickly all over Japan. The Battle of Nagashino took place on June 28th 1575. The forces of Takeda Katsuyori clashed with the allied forces of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu on the Shitaragahara plain near Nagashino Castle, located in central Japan. Takeda Katsuyori was the son of the late great general Takeda Shingen and was ready to try and make a name for himself. Tokugawa Ieyasu owned the lands to the south, along the main avenue of approach through central Japan to Kyoto, the Imperial capital. The Takeda and Tokugawa had fought many times before. Allied to Ieyasu was Oda Nobunaga, the nominal hegemon of central Japan. Nobunaga controlled the heartland of Japan around Kyoto and was an innovator with firearms and tactics in Japanese warfare. Oda Nobunaga eliminated Takeda's elite cavalry troops by placing obstacles and by aligning more than 1000 matchlock arquebuses against them. 
  
 From: near Nagoya 
 Web Site:  Battle of Nagashino 1575 
  
 
 Some Japanese battles in detail Wednesday, 3/23/05, 9:24 AM 
  
 From: Japan 
 Web Site:  Docoja 
  
 
 The Samurai Wednesday, 3/23/05, 8:39 AM 
  
 This military elite dominated Japanese politics, economics, and social policies between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries. Known as bushi or samurai, these warriors, who first appear in historical records of the tenth century, rose to power initially through their martial prowess¿in particular, they were expert in archery, swordsmanship, and horseback riding. The demands of the battlefield inspired these men to value the virtues of bravery and loyalty and to be keenly aware of the fragility of life. Yet, mastery of the arts of war was by no means sufficient. To achieve and maintain their wealth and position, the samurai also needed political, financial, and cultural acumen. In contrast with the brutality of their profession, many samurai became highly cultivated individuals. Some were devoted patrons of Buddhism, especially of the Zen and Jodo schools. Several were known as accomplished poets, and others as talented calligraphers. During the Edo period (1615¿1868), the cult of the warrior, bushido, became formalized and an idealized code of behavior, focusing on fidelity to one's lord and honor, developed. The samurai of this period continued the seemingly paradoxical relationship between the cultivation of bu and bun¿the arts of war and of culture¿that characterized Japan's great warriors. Also to be noted in Japan at this time, as in Tibet and other parts of the Far East, was the existence of fanatical bands of warrior monks ¿ those based near the capital gave the Emperors and Shoguns a lot of trouble. 
  
 From: Japan 
 Web Site:  Met Museum 
  
 
 Some battles of Japan Wednesday, 3/23/05, 8:27 AM 
  
 Mizushima, west of Okayama in Bizen Yamazahi, 70kms NW of Osaka. Kawanakajima, south of Nagano in Honshu Ichinotani, west of Osaka Toba- Fushimi, south of Kyoto Seta, at the south end of Lake Biwa Shizugatake, north end of Lake Biwa Sekigahara, west of the Kiso River Okehazama, on the coast SE of Nagoya Ishibashiyama, south of Hakone on the Izu peninsula. 1185 Dannoura ¿ naval battle in the ¿Inland Sea¿ strait between the islands of Kyushu and Honshu. The Taira clan, including a reigning Emperor, were sent to the bottom by the Miramoto led by Yoshinate, who then assumed the Shogunate at their base in the Kanto plain. 
  
 From: Japan 
  
 
 Two Japanese battles of the C16 Tuesday, 3/22/05, 9:30 AM 
  
 Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in the service of Lord Nobunaga, marched from Bitchu towards Kyoto and defeated Akechi Mitsuhide at the battle of Yamakazi 1582. the following year, 1583, he defeated Shibata Katsuie at the battle of Shizugatake. 
  
 
 The ¿Divine Winds¿ [Kamikaze] of Japan Friday, 2/18/05, 4:20 AM 
  
 The ¿divine winds¿ were thought sent by the gods to protect Japan. In 1268 Mongol envoys arrive in Japan with a message from the Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan. The Japanese at this time have two centres of power. The apparent ruler is the emperor, living in Kyoto. The real ruler is the military Regent Bakufu in Kamakura. The emperor is terrified. He has heard tales from the Sung about Mongol atrocities and their military skill. But the Bakufu is insulted and defiant. The envoys are sent home without a reply, snubbing Kublai Khan¿s offer. The Mongols build a fleet in their Korean vassal state, the Kingdom of Koryu. In November 1274, 900 ships set sail with 25,000 Mongol soldiers and 15,000 Koreans. Japan has no deep sea ships to speak of, so the fleet heads toward Japan unhindered. They first attack the island of Tsushima. Next, the island of Iki falls. On November 19th or 20th the Mongols land at Imazu in Hakata Bay, Kyushu. The Bakufu has a force of 6,000-10,000 Samurai waiting at Hakata Bay, but they are unfamiliar with the tactics of the Mongols and are hit hard by the Mongol artillery. The fighting is fierce all day, but the Mongol forces make steady progress. Japanese reinforcements are sent to Hakata Bay. By the time help arrives, the surviving defenders have been pushed back to Hakata, the modern-day city of Fukuoka. The Mongols feared a counter-attack when the darkness made their artillery useless, and took to the safety of their ships, burning a shrine to cover their retreat. A hurricane then tore through the area. 200 ships are sunk and 13,000 soldiers never return to Koryu. The first invasion is over. In 1279, the Sung Dynasty in southern China falls to the Mongols. The defeated Sung army and navy become part of a new invasion force. In Koryu, the force consists of 900 ships with 30,000 Mongol soldiers and 10,000 Koreans. In southern China, 3,500 ships are prepared, carrying 100,000 Chinese soldiers. The Bakufu has not been idle, however. While spies kept watch on the mainland, a wall is built around Hakata Bay. The wall is 13 miles long and about 8 feet high. It is vertical, facing the bay, but the inland side is angled to allow horses to climb it. Defences are also built elsewhere, and soldiers are stationed along the western coast and the inland sea. The fleet from China is delayed. The fleet at Koryu decides not to wait for them, and sets sail on 22 May, 1281. Tsushima soon falls. Then Iki is overrun. The northern fleet is supposed to rendezvous here with the southern fleet, but instead, it heads straight for Hakata Bay. The Japanese are waiting for them. Almost 100,000 soldiers are in Kyushu, and a reserve force of 20,000 more is in southern Honshu. A small diversionary force sails north towards Honshu, but on the 23rd of June, the main body lands on Shiga Spit to the north of Hakata Bay and at the north end of the wall. After several days of fighting, only one unit manages to get a beachhead. While the invasion is stopped on land, the Japanese strike back at sea using their large collection of coastal fishing boats. These are loaded with soldiers, and hit-and-run tactics are made on the Mongol fleet. Night and day, individual boats are boarded, the crew killed, and the ship burned. These tactics are so effective that the Mongols begin to lash their ships together and lay planks between the ships to help repel attacks. For a week, attempts are made to land, but they are all fiercely thrown back. Finally, the fleet retreats to Iki. The soldiers have been forced to stay on the cramped ships since they could not land. The Mongols have also been renowned for their lack of hygiene, and to make it worse, they have brought their precious horses across the sea with them. In these unsanitary conditions, 3,000 men die of fever. General Hong, wants to give up now, bu 
  
 From: Japan 
 Web Site:  William Kirsch 
  
 
 Sea battles of the Hideyoshi or Imjin ¿Seven Year¿s War¿ of 1592-8 Friday, 2/18/05, 3:29 AM 
  
 Once Japan was unified in a series of wars, General Hideyoshi decided to conquer Korea. At first the Japanese were successful, but the invasion eventually bogged down. Korean resistance, Chinese intervention, and the famous turtle ships all conspired to defeat the Japanese. ¿General Lee Sun- shin had the first sea battle near Geoje-do (island) against Japanese forces, destroying almost every Japanese battleship. It was the first Korean victory since the war began. He also later won consecutive victories at Sacheon, Dangpo, and Danghangpo, culminating in the famous victory at Hansan Island. The war began in 1592 and ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of Japanese troops. 
  
 From: Korea 
 Web Site:  Ships on Stamps 
  
 
 naval battle of Hansan Island 159x Friday, 2/18/05, 3:19 AM 
  
 victory of the famous Korean armoured "turtle ships" over the Japanese, during the Imjin War 1592-8 
  
 From: off Korea 
 Web Site:  John Hamill 
  
 
 Maps of the Chinese Civil War Friday, 2/18/05, 3:08 AM 
  
 Web Site:  West Point Military Atlas 
 
 
 
east asian troops of the 1890s
Chinese troops of the C19
Chinese battles
chinese infantry of 1914
chinese troops of 1796
European trained Green Turbans of late C19
Sino-French War of 1894
late Ming infantry
mongol or manchu irregular horse 1900
Chinese nationalist medium bomber of WW2