The 1969 World Cup soccer match between the Salvadoran and Honduran national teams took place on June 15, 1969 in San Salvador . Soccer is a national pastime in both countries and patriotism becomes intertwined with the team. El Salvador won the game and sentiments of nationalism combined with the victory produced mass victory celebrations. Honduran flags were burned on the field and fleeing fans were attacked (Kirby 1989). The Honduran government protested and El Salvador responded by breaking off relations. One month later, on July 15, the Salvadoran government sent troops across the river into Honduras , accusing the Honduran military of abusing the Salvadoran immigrants. The Honduran military retaliated and blood was shed. The number of casualties varies from 500 to 5000 Salvadorans, according to the source. Nevertheless, the war lasted 100 hours, people died and the border remained contested. Although the "war" ended less than five days after it began, the conflict was not resolved. Minor incidents continued to occur along the border and no demarcation of the border was attempted on either side. Moreover, the subsequent civil wars in El Salvador and neighboring Nicaragua affected Honduran-Salvadoran relations.
From: Salvador and Honduras
Web Site: American.edu
Cuban campaign 1898 Monday, 11/27/06, 7:42 AM
battles of Cárdenas ¿ Cienfuegos ¿ Guantánamo Bay ¿ Las Guasimas ¿ Tayacoba ¿ Aguadores ¿ El Caney ¿ San Juan Hill ¿ Naval Santiago ¿ Santiago ¿ Spanish repulsed US landing at Manimani west of Havana
Web Site: Wikipedia
Sandino's revolt 1931 - 2 Tuesday, 2/28/06, 8:35 AM
1931 to 1932: The fighting between the Sandinistas and the US Marines reaches the proportions of a national war. Except for the Pacific region nearest the capital, the rest of the national territory is the scene of repeated incursions from Sandino¿s guerrilla forces. The Las Segovias region, in northern Nicaragua , is completely controlled by the Sandinistas. On Oct. 2, 1932, Sandinista troops occupy the town of San Francisco del Carnicero, on the north coast of Lake Managua and only few kilometers from the capital. The city is shaken by this action, according to the US embassy records from that time. On Jan. 1, 1933, the US Marines abandon Nicaragua ; they have been defeated by the National Sovereignty Defense Army, led by Sandino.
War of the pies (la guerra de los pasteles) Thursday, 3/10/05, 10:38 AM
a conflict between Mexico and France 1838-9
more battles in Central America Wednesday, 1/26/05, 10:25 AM
Web Site: Thewartourist.com
The Mexican Revolution 1910 - 23 Wednesday, 1/26/05, 10:21 AM
Web Site: Thewartourist.com
Mexican timeline Wednesday, 11/17/04, 4:05 AM
Web Site: Timelines of History
Battle of Ocotlan 1923 Wednesday, 11/17/04, 4:04 AM
Adolfo de la Huerta, at Veracruz with 25,000 men, rebelled against the Mexican Revolution¿s most outstanding General, Alvaro Obregon, but was defeated by a loyalist army of 30,000.
From: Nr. Veracruz , Mexico
Pancho Villa, bandit, revolutionary and newsreel star Wednesday, 11/10/04, 11:05 AM
These days, Villa is remembered primarily for his audacious invasion of Columbus , N.M. , in 1916, the first foreign incursion into the United States in a century. What's been forgotten is that in the early years of the Mexican Revolution that started in 1910, Villa was immensely popular as a star in U.S. newsreels. It was nearly 90 years ago, in the formative years of cinema, when a film crew from the then movie capital of Fort Lee , N.J. , descended on a tiny, war- torn Mexican border town. They were there to capture the star power of revolutionary general Pancho Villa, shooting battle scenes that were choreographed with the full and richly compensated cooperation of the leader himself. Called "The Life of General Villa," the 1914 movie made history as the first to get live battle scenes on film -- and for setting a Hollywood precedent in manipulating events and people to heighten dramatic effect. The movie has been lost for decades -- but it has remained an object of fascination among historians and film buffs. Villa was a bandit in the border state of Chihuahua who, after being pardoned by Mexican President Francisco Madero, became one of the revolution's leading generals, known for his audacious tactics, brilliant cavalry maneuvers and solid popular support. He financed his battles by stealing cattle and extorting protection payments from businesses. Some of the money he used to buy arms in Texas , some he gave to the poor. By 1913, Villa's charisma and media-savviness had attracted dozens of freelance photographers, newsreel cameramen and writers as his camp followers, including the great leftist journalist John Reed, whose book "Insurgent Mexico" remains one of the classic first-person accounts of the war. Aware of his marquee value and desperate for cash amid a U.S. arms embargo, Villa put himself up for bid to movie companies in late 1913. He instinctively saw film as a way to finance his war and of selling his image to U.S. audiences, and by extension to the U.S. government at a time when Uncle Sam's allegiance to the warring factions was in flux. Legendary filmmaker D.W. Griffith -- who the next year would direct, write, produce, edit and compose music for American cinema's first blockbuster, "The Birth of a Nation" -- saw Villa's box-office potential and persuaded Harry Aitken, his partner at Mutual, to sign the general to an exclusive contract. Griffith was to have directed the movie but bowed out to focus on "The Birth of a Nation." In Griffith 's place came director William Christy Cabanne (played by Michael McKean). He was accompanied by Aitken's nephew, young production assistant Frank Thayer (Eion Bailey), whose evolving relationship with the general makes up the heart of the film. Mutual failed in its first pass at a Villa movie in January 1914, a straightforward documentary of the Battle of Ojinaga. Dust obscured the goings-on and Villa's famed Division of the North looked, in Gelbart's words, like a "motley crew of peons, which they were." Villa, with his ragged suit and stubbled beard, appeared very un-Napoleonic, looking more like he'd wandered onto the battlefield from a soup kitchen. So on a follow-up deal a month later, Mutual paid Villa $25,000 for the right to dictate battle conditions, prohibiting night attacks so cameras could get into position and shoot in natural light. It dressed Villa and his troops in army surplus uniforms -- including, according to the film, anyway, some leftovers from the Confederate army -- and got Villa to put on makeup. Mutual staged some scenes with Raoul Walsh (Kyle Chandler) as the young Villa and intercut them with real battle and camp footage. "Mutual did a makeover of Villa. They wanted a better-looking movie. They took his rough looks and they coiffed him, trimmed his mustache and lightened his skin so he'd b
From: Chihuahua , Mexico
Web Site: LA Times
Battle of Zacatecas Wednesday, 11/10/04, 10:52 AM
Villa¿s Division del Norte, fresh from a triumph at Torreon , entrained south to the beautiful mining town of Zacatecas . El Bufa and one other hill overlooking the town to the north were taken at the second attempt due to the skilful and professional artillery support of General Angeles. Huerta¿s Federals then collapsed and many were killed in the vertical mineshafts which dotted the surrounding mountains or in trying to force the road to Aguascalientes , which had already been cut by another column of rebels.
From: central Mexico
Web Site: John Schmal
The Colorado rebellion of 1912 Wednesday, 11/10/04, 10:42 AM
The bandit ¿ turned ¿ revolutionary general Pascual Orozco became disenchanted with the treatment received from the incoming President Madero. With aid from local landowners who disliked plans for extra taxation, the General began to prepare for war. On 1. March 1912 Orozco in Chihuahua came out against the Maderista government. His men were nicknamed ¿Colorados¿ from the red bandanas they wore around their necks. The following night his rival Pancho Villa with 600 men appeared to support the legal government, but withdrew when instructed not to be be entangled in fights. However Generals Huerta and Villa became unlikely comrades in arms against Orozco, and succeeded in crushing the rebellion. No sooner had they done so, than Villa and Huerta in turn fell out, and Huerta entered into alliance with the surviving Colorados , taking them into his army. Huerta temporarily imprisoned Villa (until he escaped), and then returned to the capital, where, with aid from the counter- revolutionary Felix Diaz,he succeeded in overthrowing and killing Madero and installing himself as President!. The Colorado rank and file led a chequered career throughout the Mexican revolution, many ending up in the quasi-Anarchist ranks of the Zapatistas, unsuccessfully defending Puebla City against the tyrant Carranza at a later stage of events.
From: Chihuahua , Mexico
Battles of Celaya and Trinidad 1915 Wednesday, 11/10/04, 10:12 AM
After 6 years of the Mexican revolution, and the overthrow of successive tyrants, the victorious revolutionaries had fallen out once again on the verge of victory. Zapata and Pancho Villa had spurned a chance to finish off once and for all their rivals Carranza and Obregon in Veracruz , Villa instead allowing himself to be distracted back into the minor northern theatre of Coahuila, thereby giving up Mexico City . The capital was promptly occupied by Obregon who then marched north and repulsed Villa¿s cavalry, albeit only narrowly, from entrenched positions in marshy ground at Celaya . Obregon advanced to Trinidad in the desert approaches to the city of Leon . Although both Villistas and Zapatistas were now well situated to threaten the extended Carrancista supply line with guerilla attacks on the railways, Villa did not confine himself to this strategy, but as usual impatiently committed himself to frontal attacks on Obregon¿s entrenched position. Obregon himself lost an arm when a shell hit his observation post in a church steeple; however the counterattack of his troops was successful and the battle of Trinidad spelt the end of Pancho Villa¿s Division del Norte as an effective fighting force.
From: North Central Mexico
Mexican Revolution 1910-20 Thursday, 10/28/04, 7:26 AM
Web Site: Frank Smith's World History
Battle of Tierra Blanca, November 1913 Thursday, 10/28/04, 7:16 AM
This battle saw the second use of a ¿maquina loca¿ during the Mexican Revolution. Pancho Villa, advancing from the US border with 5500 men, women and children, had taken up a defensive line across the railway south to Chihuahua City , where he was attacked by an alliance of Huerta¿s Federals and Orozco¿s Colorados 7000 strong, with artillery and machine gun support. The initial Federal assault was preceded by no bombardment, however, and collapsed after a timely charge by Villista cavalry. Both sides then retired to their respective opposite ridges. Next day Villa¿s riders outflanked the Federals, forcing them back to their trains on the railway line. Here they were hit by a locomotive packed with dynamite by Rodolfo Fierro, scattered and routed. Villa secured vast amounts of materiel and proceeded to an abortive assault on the state capital.
From: South of Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua State , Mexico
Chronology of Maximilian's campaigns in Mexico Wednesday, 10/30/02, 12:38 PM
Web Site: Chronology of Maximilian's campaigns in Mexico
The adventurer William Walker in Central America 1855-7 Wednesday, 10/30/02, 3:34 AM
the former Indian fighter William Walker rose spectacularily to institute a brief personal rule in the area of present day Nicaragua and Costa Rica , before his inevitable demise.
From: Nicaragua and Costa Rica
Web Site: The adventurer William Walker in Central America 1855-7
Cortes' description of Mexico City Wednesday, 10/30/02, 3:18 AM
Before I begin to describe this great city and the others already mentioned, it may be well for the better understanding of the subject to say something of the configuration of Mexico, in which they are situated, it being the principal seat of Moctezuma's power. This Province is in the form of a circle, surrounded on all sides by lofty and rugged mountains; its level surface comprises an area of about seventy leagues in circumference, including two lakes, that overspread nearly the whole valley, being navigated by boats more than fifty leagues round. One of these lakes contains fresh and the other, which is the larger of the two, salt water. On one side of the lakes, in the middle of the valley, a range of highlands divides them from one another, with the exception of a narrow strait which lies between the highlands and the lofty sierras. This strait is a bow-shot wide, and connects the two lakes; and by this means a trade is carried on between the cities and other settlements on the lakes in canoes without the necessity of traveling by land. As the salt lake rises and falls with its tides like the sea, during the time of high water it pours into the other lake with the rapidity of a powerful stream; and on the other hand, when the tide has ebbed, the water runs from the fresh into the salt lake.
From: Mexico City
Web Site: Modern history sourcebook
Wars in south and central America Thursday, 10/24/02, 12:20 PM
wide coverage, from pre-Columbian warfare to the present day: in particular has some excellent links.
Web Site: el Dorado
History of St Kitts Thursday, 10/24/02, 12:09 PM
Web Site: History of St Kitts
Mexico connect Friday, 5/3/02, 4:41 AM
With some very useful links to all periods of Mexican history
Web Site: Mexican history timeline
EPR operations in Mexico 1996 - 7 Wednesday, 4/17/02, 5:17 AM
On June 28, 1995, Guerrero state police ambushed a truck carrying unarmed peasant activists near the hamlet of Aguas Blancas, in the foothills of the Sierra Madre, killing 17 and wounding 20. The massacre touched off a national scandal and eventually forced the state governor, the latest of a long line of Guerrero bosses from the Figueroa family, to resign. It was one year later, at the organization's memorial service commemorating the massacre, that heavily armed guerrillas appeared, announcing to all of Mexico the creation of the EPR. See also http://www.tomzap.com/epr1.html
From: Guerrero state, Mexico
Web Site: EPR operations in Mexico 1996 - 7
the Mexican revolution in maps Friday, 4/12/02, 5:55 AM
showing locations of the major battles
Web Site: the Mexican revolution in maps
Mexican Revolution 1910 - 19 Friday, 4/12/02, 5:41 AM
see also http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=mexican+revoluti on for numerous good sources including a map locating the battles.
Web Site: Mexican Revolution 1910 - 19
Orozco's Colorados in the Mexican Revolution 1910-19 Thursday, 4/11/02, 7:28 AM
german language site on a little known warlord of the revolution.
Web Site: Orozco's Colorados in the Mexican Revolution 1910-19
Calvin Coolidge Tuesday, 3/19/02, 7:05 AM
"While conditions in Nicaragua and the action of this government pertaining thereto have in general been made public, I think the time has arrived for me officially to inform the Congress more in detail of the events leading up to the present disturbances and conditions which seriously threaten American lives and property, endanger the stability of all Central America, and put in jeopardy the rights granted by Nicaragua to the United States for the construction of a canal"
From: Washington DC
Web Site: Nicaraguan revolution of 1926
History of Michoacán Wednesday, 3/13/02, 5:03 AM
five lengthy pages in Spanish detailing the history of this often unruly state, which for example during the War of Reform was a stronghold of conservative guerillas under Miramon and Marquez, who ambushed and killed two Liberal leaders before being driven from the state by the more methodical Liberal General Ortega.
From: Michoacán state, Mexico
Web Site: History of Michoacán
Justo Rufino Barrios Monday, 3/11/02, 10:24 AM
Central American statesman, born in San Lorenzo, department of San Marcos, Guatemala, 17 July 1835; died at the battle of Chalchuapa, Salvador, 2 April 1885. He was educated for the bar, being graduated in 1862; but during the revolutionary movements of 1867 he gathered a band of mountaineers at Los Altos , near Quezalte-nango. Beginning in a small way, taking one town and another, though defeated several times and driven across the frontier into Mexico or forced to hide in his native mountains, he always came back with redoubled energy. In May 1871, General Miguel Garcia Granados joined him against the government of Vicente Cerna, and on 3 July they issued the "Plan de Patzicia." After encounters in Tacana, Retalhulen, Chiche, Tierra Blanca , Cochin , and San Lucas, in which he showed great courage and military ability, Barrios entered the capital and put an end to the regime established by Carrera in 1840, called "the thirty years." General Garcia Granados filled the presidential office, and Barrios remained as chief of the army at Los Altos . But a revolution against the new government soon broke out, and Barrios defeated the insurgents in the battles of Cerro Gordo and Santa Rosa . On 11 December 1872, began another revolution headed by General Jose Maria Medina, president of Honduras , who intended to reinstate the reactionary party. The governments of Salvador and Guatemala effected a union, and General Garcia Granados left the capital, taking command of the army. Barrios was left in charge of the presidency, and at once decreed the freedom of the press (8 June) and the suppression of religious orders, after which Garcia Granados resumed his functions as president and Barrios continued his as chief of the army. A new revolution broke out in the east and was quelled by Barrios, who captured Melgar, Fuente, and other leading insurgents. On 8 May of that year the constituent assembly, instituted by Garcia Granados, proclaimed that Barrios was elected president for the first constitutional term. He entered office, 4 June 1873, and a month later there was another insurrection headed by Enrique Palacios, accompanied by other revolutionary movements in the mountain region; but in four weeks peace was reestablished, which lasted till 1876, when President Gonzalez, of Salvador, and President Leiva, of Honduras, co6perated with the reactionary party of Guatemala against Barrios. Gonzalez was deposed, and his successor, Andres Valle, in a conference held at Chingo, agreed to leave the questions at issue to be arranged by Dr. Marco Aurelio Soto with the aid of Salvador and Guatemala . Owing to the influence of Gonzalez the agreement was not fulfilled. Barrios went in person to attack Salvador , and after the battles of Platanar, Chalchuapa, Apanica, and Pasaquina, the Salvadorians, having resisted for two months without success, capitulated. In 1876 the national assembly approved the acts of Barrios. An attempt was made to assassinate him in 1877 while he was visiting at San Pedro Jacopilas, near the Mexican frontier. The conspirators called themselves the "society of death," and their purpose was to kill Barrios and several of his ministers, and even women and children; but the whole plot was discovered, 1 November 1877, and the chief instigators were shot. Another assembly met in Guatemala in 1879 and decreed (11 December) the first constitution of the republic, a very liberal one, which was put in operation 1 March 1880, and General Barrios was reelected for six years; but he declined, saying that power should not be too long in the hands of one man, that Guatemala needed new rulers not so tired as he was of public life and who could completely establish republican principles. The assembly, however, would not accept his refusal, and he was inaugurated. The boundary question with Mexico
Web Site: Justo Rufino Barrios
History of unification attempts Monday, 3/11/02, 10:13 AM
in Spanish - nice flag graphics though!!
From: Central America
Web Site: History of unification attempts
History of Guatemala Monday, 3/11/02, 10:05 AM
Historia y Cultura de Guatemala. Es la guía multimedia más completa y actualizada que ilustra en más de 500 temas, 75 películas, 30 sonidos y más de 2,000 fotografías, los acontecimientos históricos de mayor relevancia en Guatemala, desde la prehistoria hasta nuestros días. Así como el folklore material, social y espiritual guatemalteco (Artesanías, Comidas, Fiestas, Danzas, Música, Leyendas, etc.). Además contiene más de 150 biografías, los presidentes de Guatemala que han gobernado desde 1821, incluyendo todas la Juntas Militares de Gobierno. Importantes discursos, sonidos musicales, y acontecimientos grabados en video. Este proyecto está asesorado por el Historiador y Antropólogo Celso A. Lara Figueroa y el conocido Cronista, Escritor e Historiador Lic. Miguel Alvarez Arévalo. Entre, y admire el 20% de lo que contiene nuestro Disco Laser, ya a la venta en nuestras oficinas (dirección y tel. abajo).
Web Site: History of Guatemala
Battle of Chalchuapa, Salvador , 1885 Monday, 3/11/02, 5:37 AM
Barrio's Guatemalans and their Honduran allies were defeated by Nicaragua , Costa Rica and the locals when invading western Salvador under the shadow of an ancient Mayan pyramid. Barrio had hoped to reinstate the Central American Federation which collapsed in the 1820s, but he was killed instead.
From: El Salvador
Web Site: Battle of Chalchuapa, Salvador , 1885
History of the Aztecs Friday, 3/8/02, 5:02 AM
this is a collection of Powerpoint or other slides together giving an illustrated history of the rise of the Aztec Empire up to its overthrow after 1519.
Web Site: History of the Aztecs