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Military & Naval History: Oceania, Australasia, Indonesia; the islands of the Pacific & Indian Ocean
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 The Military history of Sri Lanka 777AD ¿ 1216AD 
 From: Ceylon 
 Web Site:  TWT 
 the Sokehs Rebellion against the Germans in 1910 Friday, 7/6/07, 8:59 AM 
 It wasn't the first time people on Pohnpei took up arms against foreign rulers. Three times under Spanish rule violence had broken out on the island. But the Sokehs Rebellion against the Germans in 1910 was the last and best known of the outbursts against foreign rule. This uprising was not island-wide, but limited to the Sokehs people. Other sections of Pohnpei may have had their issues, but their quarrels with Sokehs overrode any resentment toward the Germans. Even today Sokehs people sing the elegy of the doomed band of warriors that faced down the Germans. 
 From: Pohnpei 
 Web Site:  Miscem 
 Micronesian history Friday, 7/6/07, 8:57 AM 
 Web Site:  Micronesian history 
 Battle of Mokuohai 1782 Friday, 2/2/07, 3:52 AM 
 Kamehameha I defeats and kills Kiwalao 
 From: Hawaii 
 Military history of the Philippines Wednesday, 1/24/07, 9:22 AM 
 From: Philippines 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 Struggles in Bintan and the Riau archipelago. Friday, 10/13/06, 8:45 AM 
 The Dutch had employed the Bugis people, seafarers from the SW Celebes, as mercenaries in the capture of Makassar and the Moluccas, but had no further use for them there. The Bugis made use of their experience to conquer their own territory from the Malay rulers in Riau and peninsular Malaya. They established themselves on Bintan for a time, probably at Penyenget, but came under pressure from the local Malays and had to relocate to Lingga island, where they were attacked in turn by the Dutch from Malacca, to complete the circle. In the previous, seventeenth, century Riau had been disputed between the two powerful kingdoms of Aceh and Johore, while in the sixteenth century Bintan was the subject of Portuguese attacks, in 1523 and 1524. 
 World War II in the Pacific Tuesday, 8/22/06, 3:46 AM 
 Web Site:  World War II in the Pacific 
 Engagements of the Maori Wars Thursday, 3/23/06, 7:26 AM 
 Battles described here include: 1845 Mar. 11 Kororareka 15 21 34 68 May 8 Puketutu (Omapere) 14 40 30 50 June 30 Ohaeawai 41 73 10 July 1 1846 Jan. 11 Rua-pekapeka 12 30 20 30 May 16 Boulcott's Farm (Hutt) 8 3 10 Aug. 6 Horokiri 3 8 1847 May 19 Wanganui 2 July 19 Wanganui 3 11 3 10 1860 Mar. 17 Te Kohia (L pa), Waitara 2 2 Mar. 28 Waireka 2 12 50 June 27 Puke-ta-kauere 30 34 Sept. 7 Huirangi 1 2 Oct. 12 Kaihihi River positions Nov. 6 Mahoetahi 4 17 50 60 Dec. 30 Mata-rikoriko 3 20 6 1861 Jan. 23 No. 3 Redoubt, Huirangi 5 11 50 40 Feb. 10 No. 7 Redoubt, Huirangi 2 28 Mar. 3 Brooklands (New Plymouth) 1 1 Mar. 5 Sap at Te Arei 1 4 Mar. 17 Sap at Te Arei 1 1863 May 4 Wairau, Taranaki 9 June 4 Katikara, Taranaki 3 40 ¿ 466 ¿ 1863 July 17 Koheroa, Waikato 1 12 30 Martin's Farm, Great South Road 5 11 July 22 Kirikiri (Papakura) 2 4 July 24 Wairoa Road 1 Aug. 25 Williamson's Clearing (Pukewhau) 2 1 3 Sept. 2 Pokeno Sept. 7 Camerontown (Lower Waikato) 8 1 7 20 Sept. 8 Kakaramea (Razorback) 1 Hill's Clearing, Mauku 5 Sept. 14 Pukekohe East 3 8 40 Burtt's Farm, Paerata 2 Sept. 15, 17, 18 Wairoa South stockade and Otau 8 Oct. 2 Allen's Hill, Taranaki 2 6 Oct. 23 Titi Hill, Mauku 8 4 20 Oct. 30 Meremere shelled Nov. 20 Rangiriri 47 85 50 Dec. 14 Wairoa Ranges 8 1864 Feb. ¿ Waipa River (near Whatawhata) 1 Feb. 11 Waiari (Mangapiko) 6 5 40 30 Feb. 21 Rangiaowhia 5 3 12 Feb. 22 Hairini 3 15 25 Mar. 11 Kaitake 1 6 Mar. 24 Kaitake 4 Mar. 31 Orakau 17 51 160 50 April 1 April 2 April ¿ Taurua (Rotoiti) 3* 4 20 April 21 to 26 Maketu April 27 Kaokaoroa 1* 50 April 29 Gate Pa, Tauranga 31 80 20 June 21 Te Ranga 
 From: NZ 
 Web Site:  NZ Etext Central 
 Civil war on Guadalcanal 1999 ¿ 2003 Wednesday, 3/22/06, 6:57 AM 
 In early 1999 long-simmering tensions between the local Gwale people on Guadalcanal and more recent migrants from the neighbouring island of Malaita, erupted into violence. The `Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army¿, later called Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM), began terrorising Malaitans in the rural areas of the island. About 20,000 Malaitans fled to the capital and others returned to their home island; Gwale residents of Honiara fled. The city became a Malaitan enclave. The Malaita Eagle Force (MEF) was formed to uphold Malaitan interests. Malaitans took over some armouries at their home island and Honiara and helped by that, on June 5 the MEF seized the parliament by force. On 30 June Parliament elected a new Prime Minister, Manasseh Sogavare. He established a Coalition for National Unity, Reconciliation and Peace, which released a program of action focused on resolving the ethnic conflict, restoring the economy and distributing the benefits of development more equally. However, Sogavare¿s government was deeply corrupt and its actions led to the downward economic spiral and the deterioration of law and order. The conflict was centered around Honiara. Since the beginning of the civil war it is estimated that 100 have been killed. About 30,000 refugees, mainly Malaitans, had to leave their homes, and economic activity on Guadalcanal was severely disrupted. The security forces were unable to reassert control, largely because many police and security personnel are associated with one or another of the rival gangs. On July 6, 2003, in response to a proposal to send 300 police and 2,000 troops from Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Papua New Guinea to Guadalcanal, warlord Harold Keke announced a ceasefire. Keke leads the Guadalcanal Liberation Front, but has been described as a bandit based on the isolated southwestern coast (Weather Coast) of Guadalcanal. Despite this ceasefire, on July 11, 2003 supporters of Harold Keke razed two villages. Peacekeeping forces were later successful in improving the country's overall security conditions, including brokering the surrender of a notorious warlord, Harold Keke in August 2003. 
 From: Solomons islands 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 Civil war in Bougainville 1990 ¿ 3 Thursday, 3/2/06, 10:05 AM 
 In May 1990 the mining island of Bougainville in the Solomons, legally part of New Guinea, split into several factions, and a civil war began. Much of the division in this fighting were largely along clan- lines; the BIG/BRA faction was dominated by the Nasioi clan. On the island of Buka, north of Bougainville a local militia was formed which succeeded in driving out the BRA with the help of Papuan troops. The BRA leadership of Ona and Kauona fell out with some of the political leaders, such as Kabui. Several other village militias, which together became known as the resistance, armed by the PNG defence forces, forced the BRA out of their areas. Papua New Guinea's policy towards Bougainville hardened after the defeat of the incumbent government at the 1992 elections. New Prime Minister Paias Wingti took a considerably more hardline stance, and angered the Solomon Islands, after a bloody raid on one island that was alleged to be supporting the Bougainvilleans. The Papuan army, in alliance with the resistance, succeeded in retaking Arawa, the provincial capital, in January 1993. 
 From: Solomons 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 Military history of the Philippines Friday, 10/7/05, 3:44 AM 
 On April 27, 1521, warriors of Lapu-Lapu, a chieftain of Mactan, defeated and killed Ferdinand Magellan at the Battle of Mactan Island. After Magellan landed on the island of Homonhon March 16, 1521 , he parleyed with Rajah Calambu of Limasawa, who guided him to Cebu, on April 7. Through Magellan's interpreter, Enrique, Rajah Humabon of Cebu became an ally. Suitably impressed by Magellan's 12 cannons and 50 cross-bows, Rajah Humabon suggested that Magellan project power to cow Lapu-Lapu of Mactan. Magellan deployed 48 armored men, less than half his crew, with cross-bows and guns, but could not land on Mactan since the island has a coral shoreline and lacks anchorage suitable for Spanish galleons. His crew had to wade through the surf to make landing. Eight crewmen were killed. Antonio Pigafetta, a supernumerary on the voyage who later returned to Seville, Spain, records that Lapu-Lapu had at least 1500 warriors in the battle. Magellan was wounded in the leg, while still in the surf. As the crew were retreating, they record that Magellan was surrounded by warriors. 
 From: Philippines 
 Web Site:  Indopedia 
 The Battle of Tirad Pass 1899 Wednesday, 7/20/05, 7:55 AM 
 A battle in the Philippine-American War fought on 2 December 1899 in northern Luzon, when a 60-man Filipino rearguard defending fortifications and commanded by Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar eventually succumbed to 300 Americans of the 33rd Infantry regiment under Major P.C. March. 
 From: Northern Luzon in the Philippines 
 Web Site:  Wikipedia 
 The Napoleonic War in the East Indies Wednesday, 7/6/05, 2:59 AM 
 The governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, Herman Willem Daendels (1762-1818), fortified the island of Java (part of Indonesia) against possible British attack. In 1810 a strong British East India Company expedition under Gilbert Elliot, first earl of Minto (1751-1814), governor-general of India, conquered the French islands of Burbon (Reunion) and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean and the Dutch East Indian possessions of Amboina (Ambon) and the Molucca Islands. His forces included a Lankan contingent. Afterward it moved againsts Java, captured the port city of Batavia (Djakarta) in August 1811, and forced the Dutch to surrender at Semarang on September 17, 1811. Java, Palembang (in Sumatra), Macassar (Makasar, Celebes), and Timor were ceded to the British. Appointed lieutenant governor of Java, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781- 1826) ended oppressive Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade. In 1816, the British returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the Dutch as part of the accord ending the Napoleonic Wars. 
 From: Batavia 
 Web Site:  Regiments 
 Major Events In Indonesian History Tuesday, 11/19/02, 5:39 AM 
 Ad.75 Klings,Hindu Traders From India Founded Colonies On Java,According To Tradition. By 700 Kingdom Of Srivijaya Became Dominant On The Island Of Sumatra,With Its Capital In The South,At Palembang,Later Taking Western Java And Becoming A Major Power In The Region For Several Centuries. 856 Kingdom Of Sanjaya Won A Battle For Dominance In Central Java,Defeating The State Of Sailendra On The Ratubaka Plain. Ca.958-Ca.1000 Rejecting Srivijayan Claims To Java,According To Tradition,East Java's King Dharmavamsa Unsuccessfully Attacked The Srivijayans On Sumatra. 1016-1017 Srivijaya Attacked And Destroyed The Kingdom Of East Java. 1025 Rejendra 1st.Kingdom Of Chola Attacked Srivijaya [1025],Soon Taking The Capital,Palembang,And Other Key Ports,Then Reopening Indian Trade Routes To China. 1222 In Western Java Rebels Against The Kediri Kingdom Founded The State Of Singosari. 1292- 1293 With Mongal Help Prince Vijaya Overthrew His Father- In-Law,Kertanagara,Taking The Throne Of Singosari,In Java,Then Defeating The Mongals 1295- 1319 Vijaya And His Son,Jayanagara,Faced Various Revolts [From 1295],Put Down By Gaja Mada[1319],Who As Prime Minister Led Java In Taking Bali,West Java,Madura And Other Nearby Islands And Coastal Colonies. 1513-1521 Portuguese Forces Established Fortified Post In The Moluccas,The Legendary Spice Islands[1513- 1521],Beginning The Long Contest For European Supremacy In The East Indies. 1533 Portugese Forces Began Their Long Series Of Small Wars By Which They Would Gradually Take Control Of Northern Java. 1568 Sultanate Of Bantam Expanded To Take The Rest Of Western Java. 1629 Portuguese Naval Forces ,With Indonesian Allies,Defeated The Achenese War Fleet Of Malacca. 1641-1663 Dutch Forces Began A Series Of Attacks On Portuguese Indian Ocean Bases,Taking Malacca[Malaya],Indonesia [1641]. 1704- 1705 Continuing Their Conquest Of Java,Dutch Forces Used A Succession Crises In Matram To Install A Puppet Ruler,Also Directly Taking More Of Western Java And Eastern Madura. 1706-1707 Dutch Colonial Forces Defeated The Forces Of Surapati In Northeast Java,Then Taking The Region. 1719-1723 During Another Matram Succession Crises,The Dutch Seized Much Of The Remainder Of Eastern And Central Java. 1740-1744 On Java,A Chinese Insurrection Was Defeated By The Dutch[1740-1743],Who Then Massacred Thousands Of Chinese. The Dutch Then Took The Javanese Northern Coast And The Rest Of Madura,Also Defeating A Madura Independence Rising[1743-1744]. 1749-1754:Javanese-Dutch War Dutch Occupation Forces On Java,Involved In Another Mataram Succession Crises,Suffered Early Reverses,Also Facing An Insurrection In Western Java,But Ultimately Reasserted Their Control Over The Island. 1808 Dutch Forces Completed Their Control Of Western Java. 1810- 1816 British Forces Attack The Dutch On Java,Taking Batavia[Aug.];The Defeated Dutch Ceded Java And Several Other Indonesian Territories To Britain [Sept.].All Were Returned After The Napoleonic Wars [1816]. 1817 Dutch Forces Defeated A Substantial Insurrection In The Molucca Island[May-Nov.]. 1825- 1830 Major Javanese Rising Against The Dutch Was Defeated. 1901-1970 Sukarno:First President Of Indonesia[1949-1966]. 1908 Dutch Forces Completed Their Conquest Of Sumatra In Indonesia,Defeating The Sultan Of Atjeh[Achin]After A Long,Low Level Struggle. 1921 Born:Suharto,Indonesian General And President[1966- ] 1942-1945 Jan.Mar.:Japanese Invasion Of Indonesia And Occupation. 1945 Republic Of Indonesia Was Proclaimed By Independence Leaders [Aug.17];The 4-Year Indonesian War Of Indepence[1945- 1949] Began.Dutch And British Forces Occupied Indonesia[Oct.],Taking Surabaya[Nov.],While Indonesian Forces Went Over To A Guerrilla War. 1946 Republic Of Indonesia Established 
 From: Indonesia 
 Web Site:  Sejarah Indonesia 
 RAJAH BROOKE & 19THC SARAWAK Thursday, 11/7/02, 3:32 AM 
 This site is devoted to the study of James Brooke, Charles Brooke, and Vyner Brooke, the 'White Rajahs' of Sarawak; Sarawak history 1839-1946; and related subjects such as the Brooke family and the history of Malaysia and Borneo. It also provides a point of contact for people interested in these subjects. See also a second site on this subject at From: Sarawak, Malaysia and Borneo 
 From: Sarawak [Borneo] 
 The history of Malacca Thursday, 11/7/02, 3:25 AM 
 From: West coast of Malaysia 
 Web Site:  The history of Malacca 
Australian rifleman of 1941 - 45
Rebel Filipino flag of General Llanera 1897
Filipino flag 1897
Hawaiian royal standard
flag of Aceh