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OVERVIEW OF BATTLES IN EUROPE

The Austro-Hungarian military map series
 
The whole map series, published around 1910 prior to WW1, appears to be on this Magyar site ¿ ideal for Kriegsspiel gams and the like.
 
From: Central and south-eastern Europe (all)
Web Site:  Lazarus
 

Documents on Warfare in the Age of Louis XIV Wednesday, 4/19/06, 5:18 AM
 
docs in .pdf format
 
Web Site:  Stewart at Hillsdale
 

Some lesser known European battles Tuesday, 4/18/06, 10:47 AM
 
Cheshire Nantwich 1644 Kent Ebbsfleet 449 Sussex Andredescester 491 Northumbria Bamburgh 547 Wilts Old Sarum 552 East Devon Bindon 614 Outside Girona, in the north of Catalunya Torroella / River Ter / Girona 1694 Asturias Covadonga 718 Ukraine Bender 1538 On Elbe in western Poland Punitz 1704 Belarus Maloyaroslavets 1812 Bouvines 1214 Roosebeke 1382 Haarlem 1572 ¿ 3 Mook 1574 Gembloux 1574 Hulst 1590 Loos? Leuze 1691 Steenkirk 1691 Landen 1693 Nimwegen 1702 Belgium Steckene 1703 Eckenren 1703 Wynendael 1708 Hondschoote 1708 Near Tabriz Sufiyan 1605 Calcinate 1706 Near Bari Cerignola 1502 Savoy? Staffarda 1690 Savoy? Marsaglia 1693 South of Brescia Carpi 1701 Santa Vittoria 1702 South of Brescia Luzzara 1702 East of Milano Cassano 1705 Milazzo 1718 Sicily Francaville 1719 Bitonto 1734 Bari 1734 Colorno 1734 San Bendetto 1734 Guastalla 1734` Bellino 1744 Coni 1744 Mondovi 1796 Dego 1796 Voltorno 1860 Castelfradardo 1860 Macerone 1860 Monteale 1860 Calatafimi 1860 Aspromonte 1862 Tory Island` 1798 Chalcidice Spartalos 429bc Thermopylae II 447 Swabia Friedlingen 1702 Bavaria? Sieghardin 1703 Bavaria? Scharding 1742 Bavaria? Weissembourg 1744 Bavaria? Pfaffenhofen 1745 NE of Paderborn Suntel 782 Elbe river Lenzen 929 East Friesland Birten 939 Bavaria Wels 943 La Roche aux Moines 1214 North of Paris Mello 1358 Nancy 1477 Picardy Wattignies 1793 Nr Orleans Montereau 1814 SE of Lyons Vezeronce 526 Camargue Narbonne 720 Hummelshof Kaseritsch 1701 Erestfer 1702 Schagarin 1703 Punitz 1704 Gemauerthof 1705 Fraustadt 1706 Propoisk 1708 Perewolotscha 1709 Kumanovo Yanitsa Kurdzhau Carpathians Argesh 1389 Bulgaria Varna 1444 Bosnia Jayce 1463 Transylvania Kenyermielo 1479 Wallachia Tirgoviste 1595 Bosnia Derbend 1688 Vidin 1689 Pristine 1689 Szlankamen 1691 Romania Lugos 1695 Olaschin 1696 River Pruth Faltschi 1711 Kissoda 1712 Serbia Beograd 1717 Petrovardein / Peterwardein 1717 Ostrovica 1737 Kornia 1738 Mehadia III 1738 Grocka 1738 Romania? Stawutschene 1738 Serbia Kumanovo 1912 Serbia Monastir 1912 Thrace Kirk ¿ Kilisse 1912 Thrace Luele Burgas 1912 Thrace Lines of Chatalja 1912 Gallipoli I 443 Central Bulgaria Marcianopolis 447 Bulgaria Dorostol 971 Hungary Esztergom 1241 Schweiz Giornico 1478 Schweiz Dornach 1499 SE of Wien Koeszeg 1532 Bohemia Eger 1552 On The Danube Giurgiu 1595 Mezokereszyes 1596 Bohemia Eger 1596 Gotthard 1664 Eastern Austria Eisenstadt (Kismarton) 1704 Hungary? Schmoellnitz 1704 Hungary? Raab 1704 Hungary? Pata 1704 Hungary? Tyrnau 1704 Hungary? Zsibo 1705 Hungary? Nagy ¿ Majteny 1711 Bohemia Sadowa (Koeniggratz) 1866 Bohemia Jankau 905 Between Balaton & Danube Pressburg 907 In Hungary, on the Danube Poszony 907 Dorylaeum 1097 Dorylaeum 1147 Guns 1532 Waitzen 1684 Eperies 1684 Gran 1685 Neuhausel 1685 Friedlingen 1702 Stollhofen lines 1703 Speyer 1703 Elixhem 1705 Stollhofen Lines II 1707 Golontschin 1708 Trentschin 1708 Dobroje 1708 Rumersheim 1709
 

lesser known Napoleonic battles Friday, 3/10/06, 9:29 AM
 
Web Site:  TWT
 

Renaissance Warfare Friday, 3/10/06, 9:28 AM
 
Web Site:  TWT
 

Linked Alphabetical list of 935 European Ethnic Groupings Friday, 3/10/06, 8:48 AM
 
Some of the ethnic groups recorded here: Abashevo Acarag-Antes Achaeans Adlerberg Aduatici Aegeans Aeolians Aequi Afanasjevo Africans See also Northern Africans Agathyrsi Akkadians Alamanni Alans Alauni Alazones Alb-Hegau Albani Albanians Allobrogi Almohads Almoravids Altai Nomads Amantini Ambarri Ambiani Ambidravi Ambisonti Ambivarii Ambrones Amizetes Amorites Amsivarii Anartii Anatolians Andizetes Andosini Andronovo Angles Anglo-Saxons Angriani Angrivarii Antes Aorsi Appenine See also Proto-Appenine Apulian Arabs Aramaeans Aratores Aravisci Ardiaei Aremorici Arenosi Arevaci Armenians Armenokhori Armorican Aromuni Arra Artenacien Arverni Arvernove Asbestos Ceramic Asilii Assyrians Astures Asva Athenians Atinitani Atmones Aurunci Ausetani Ausonii Austrians Autariatae Autrigoni Auvernier Avars Averni Avioni Aylesford-Swarling Azali Babadag Bagatovalikov Ceramic Balanovo Balkan people Baltic Bronze Baltic Bronze Age II Baltic Finns Baltic Late Bronze Age Balts See also Proto-Balts Barrow Graves Bartans Bashkirs Bastarnae Batavi Battle Axe See also Late Battle Axe Barvarians Bayuvars Belgae Beli Bell Beakers Belli Bellovaci Belogrudov Belorussians See also Northern Belorussians Berbers Beribraki Beroni Bersiti Besarabi Bibroki Biessi Bithynians Bituriges Vivisci Biturigi Black Sea Culture Area Bobrane Bodini Boeheimkirchen Boii Borani Boristhenitae Boructuarii Bosnians Branicevci Bretons Breuci Breuni Brigantes Brioni British See also Romano-British Britons Brodniki Bronze Age See also Baltic Bronze Baltic Bronze Age II Baltic Late Bronze Age Bronze-Iron Age Transition in Serbia Early Bronze Age Early Northern Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Complex Middle Bulgarian Late Bronze Age Northern Early Bronze Northern Younger Bronze Age Periods III-IV Old Bronze Age Older Bronze Age Bronze-Iron Age Transition in Serbia Brsjaci Bructeri Brutti Brygi Budini Buguntae Bukri Bulgarians See also Middle Bulgarian Late Bronze Age Bulgars See also Proto-Bulgars Burgundians Busane Bylan Byzantines Cadurci Caeroesi Calabri Calaeci Caledonians Callipidae Calucones Cannenefates Cantabri Cantii Caristii Carni Carpathian Kurhanu Carpetani Carpi Carthaginians Castellieri Castellucio Castro Catacomb Catari Cattenati Catuvellauni Cavares Celtiberians Celto-Illyrians Celts Cempsi Cenomani Cerauni Cernavoda Cernolesk Cernyachov Cerretani Ceutrones Chaldeans Chalisen Chamavi Charudes Chasuarii Chatti Chattuarii Chauci Cherusci Chonii Chudes Chutici Chuvash Cimbri Cimmerians Cinerary Urns Circassians Colapiani Colchis Conca d'Oro Condrusi Contestani Corded Ware See also Late Corded Ware Cornacates Cornavi Corsicans Corvi Coslogeni Cossetani Costisa Costobocci Cotini Cotofeni Cretans Crimean Tatars Crnobuki Croats Cuberni Cucuteni Cumans Curonians Cypriots See also Early Cypriot Late Cypriot Middle Cypriot Czechi Czechs Dacians Daco-Mysians Daco-Romans Dadosane Daesidiates Daleminci Dalmations Danes Daorsi Dardani Darini Dassaretae Dauni Debczynsk Decane Deitani Delmatae Demetae Dentheleti Denyen Derriopes Ditch Comb Ditiones Djakovo Dnepr-Dvina Doberi Dobuni Docleatae Dorian-Macednan Dorians Draguviti Dregovice Drevljane Duljebi Dumnoni Durobrigi Dutch Early Bronze Age Early Cypriot Early Hallstatt Early Minoan Early Northern Bronze Age Eastern Baltic Monument Eastern Germans Eastern Heruli Eburoni Edetani Edoni Egyptians ElAlrgar Ely
 
Web Site:  European Ethnohistory database
 

Battles of the Gothic peoples Tuesday, 3/7/06, 4:01 AM
 
A Battle of Abrittus B Battle of Adrianople C Battle of Chalons F Battle of the Frigidus G Battle of Guadalete I Battle of Isonzo (489) M Battle of Mons Lactarius N Battle of Naissus Battle of Nedao P Battle of Pollentia T Battle of Taginae V Battle of Verona Battle of Vouillé W Battle of the Willows
 
Web Site:  Wikipedia
 

Battles in the Holy Roman Empire Thursday, 3/2/06, 6:19 AM
 
Web Site:  Wikipedia
 

Minor actions of the Napoleonic Wars Friday, 2/24/06, 8:51 AM
 
From: europe and colonies
Web Site:  The War Tourist
 

John Mackay Wednesday, 12/7/05, 2:30 AM
 
My first visit. Too early to comment constructively. Looks O.K.
 
From: Edinburgh Scotland
Email:  johnandbarbaramackay@btinternet.com
 

Franco-Habsburg War, 1521-1529 Wednesday, 11/23/05, 8:03 AM
 
Also referred to as the Franco-Spanish War. Conflict between the Habsburg and Valois Dynasties, over territory in Italy (mainly Milan) and elsewhere (Navarra, Burgundy). Emperor Charles V. was angered about French support for the Comuneros Revolt in Castile 1520-1521 and Francis' 1519 bid for the Imperial crown. The Emperor was supported by the Papal State, Florence and Mantua. A French force invaded Upper Navarra and took the Navarrese capital of Pamplona (1521; during the siege, Ignatius of Loyola, later the founder of the Jesuit Order, was injured by a cannon ball). Still in 1521, the French suffered a defeat at the hands of the Spanish in the Battle of Pamplona. Imperial troops took Milan in 1522, defeated the French in the Battle of Bicocca 1522, took hitherto French-held Genoa later that year and in 1524 invaded Provence (French since 1483). King Francis I. of France then lead an army into Italy, but suffered a decisive defeat in the Battle of Pavia Feb. 24th 1525 and was taken prisoner. He was compelled to sign the treaty of Madrid, in which he renounced French claims on Upper Navarra and Milan and, in addition, ceded the Duchy of Burgundy. After his release, he violated his traety obligations, and resumed the war against the Emperor. However, Imperial troops held on to Milan and to Navarra. In 1526, Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) dared to join the League of Cognac, allying himself with France and Venice against the Emperor. Imperial troops in 1527 sacked Rome (Sacco di Roma). The Medici, relatives of Pope Clement VII., were ousted a second time from Florence. In 1529 the Treaty of Cambrai was signed, in which Francis again renounced his claim on Upper Navarra, Naples and Milan, but held on to the Duchy of Burgundy. Relations between the Habsburg Dynasty and France did not improve; France continued to support every enemy of the Habsburgs.
 

Napoleonic battle lists Friday, 6/10/05, 9:50 AM
 
very extensive listings here, with troop nos, etc.
 
From: Europe & Mideast & Oceans
Web Site:  Napoleon Series
 

Medieval fortresses webring Thursday, 6/9/05, 4:02 AM
 
Includes sites throughout Europe including Russia, Finland, Austria and hundreds of castles in Britain and in the Rhineland.
 
From: Europe-wide
Web Site:  Medieval fortresses webring
 

Conflicts of C11 Europe Wednesday, 3/16/05, 7:07 AM
 
a downloadable ebook
 
Web Site:  Project Gutenberg
 

The European ethnohistory database Tuesday, 1/4/05, 10:43 AM
 
¿.a unique resource which describes the movements and locations of 891 ethnic units (each a "gens" or an archaeological assemblage) from 2200 BC to 1970 AD. The data were abstracted from a total of 191 secondary or tertiary ethnohistorical/archeological literature sources, as well as 91 historical maps. A total of 6161 records was originally captured from these materials, but only 3460 remain as accepted records after numerous checks to correct records, avoid duplications, and improve logical consistency between records.
 
From: europe
Web Site:  The European ethnohistory database
 

Some events of the ¿Year of Revolutions¿ 1848 Friday, 8/13/04, 10:53 AM
 
January 9, 1848 People's uprising in Palermo Sicily February 2, 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican War February 24, 1848 King Louis-Philippe abdicates, 2nd French republic declared February 26, 1848 Marx & Engels publish "Communist Manifesto" February 29, 1848 Neufchatel declares independence of Switzerland March 12, 1848 2nd republic established in France March 20, 1848 King Louis I of Bayern abdicates to marry dancer Lola Montez March 24, 1848 State of siege proclaimed in Amsterdam April 8, 1848 1st battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians April 8, 1848 Battle at Xaquixaguana, Peru: Pedro de la Gasca beats Gonzalo Pizarro April 11, 1848 Hungary becomes constitutional monarchy under king Ferdinand of Austria May 7, 1848 Prussians stop insurrection in Varsovia May 29, 1848 Battle at Curtazone: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte May 30, 1848 2nd battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians June 10, 1848 Battle at Vicenza: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte June 23, 1848 Bloody insurrection of workers in Paris July 23, 1848 Battle of Custoza-Italian War of Independence, starts July 25, 1848 1st battle at Custozza: Austrians under Radetzky beat Italian August 9, 1848 Austria & Sardinia sign cease fire
 
From: Mainly in Europe
Web Site:  University of London
 

Periodical historical atlas of europe Monday, 2/2/04, 7:39 AM
 
an online atlas depicting in 21 clear and colourful maps the states of the continent at the end of each century from ad 1 to ad 2000: the NE, NW, SE and SW quadrants of each map are also shown separately.
 
From: switzerland
Web Site:  christos nussli
 

The War of the Spanish Succession 1702-14 Friday, 1/23/04, 4:43 AM
 
The war of the Spanish Succession can be called the first true World War. It put together on one side the alliance consisting off: England, the United Provinces, the Habsburg Empire and more or less luke- warm most of the German states. On the other side were France and the Spanish Empire, also referred to as 'the two crowns'. With the United Kingdom and the United Provinces as leaders of the Alliance the war was also a battle between these sea-powers, that had in their governments a significant representation of their populations and popular interests, and two of the most absolutist monarchies in the world, led by 'L'etat c'est moi' Louis XIV of France. This site lists year by year the events that led up to the war, the main events on the political and diplomatic scene and the main events of each campaign.
 
From: Europe and its colonies
Web Site:  The War of the Spanish Succession 1702-14
 

Yahoo Late Roman Empire discussion group Wednesday, 7/16/03, 5:14 AM
 
We are a friendly group of people from around the world who share a passion for the history of the Late Roman Empire. Much of the discussion is based on a wargaming theme, but other related topics, such as the relative merits of primary sources, book reviews and just about anything else relating to the period are also welcomed and encouraged. Whatever your favourite army, Late Roman, Romano British, Sassanid, Hunnic, Germanic, Pictish... if you've got something you want to say, post it up on the discussion board.
 
From: Rome & Byzantium
Web Site:  Yahoo Late Roman Empire discussion group
 

Armies of the European Lace Wars Thursday, 7/10/03, 3:15 AM
 
Some wonderful historical military miniatures and standards displayed here. In French and English.
 
From: France & Europe
Web Site:  Tricorne
 

The Histories Wednesday, 7/9/03, 7:14 AM
 
Mediterranean history in English, presently covering only the period of Punic War II. But more to come.
 
From: Greece
Web Site:  Polybius
 

KINGDOMS OF EUROPE Tuesday, 7/8/03, 10:52 AM
 
Containing all the kingdoms of Pre- and Post-Roman Europe from Gaul to Russia and Scandinavia to the Italian and Iberian Peninsulas - including exotica such as the Duchy of Athens CONTENTS WESTERN EUROPE IBERIAN PENINSULA ITALIAN PENINSULA CENTRAL & NORTHERN EUROPE EASTERN EUROPE & RUSSIA EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN
 
From: EUROPE
Web Site:  KINGDOMS OF EUROPE
 

Battles of the Mediterranean region 390bc to 121bc Monday, 6/30/03, 3:42 AM
 
...covers all significant Mediterranean battles from 390bc through to 121bc
 
From: the Mediterranean
Web Site:  Battles of the Mediterranean region 390bc to 121bc
 

the Normans across Europe Thursday, 5/22/03, 11:11 AM
 
From: Normandy
Web Site:  the Normans across Europe
 

30 Years War sash colours:- Thursday, 2/20/03, 3:23 AM
 
Imperials ¿ red Spain ¿ red France ¿ white Netherlands ¿ orange Saxony ¿ green Sweden ¿ blue Denmark ¿ blue & orange, with white hat feather
 

Battlefields of WW2 Tuesday, 11/5/02, 11:36 AM
 
mainly in Europe as at Nov 2002
 
From: mainly in Europe
Web Site:  Battlefields of WW2
 

The armies of Europe in 1855 Thursday, 10/31/02, 9:44 AM
 
written during the Crimean War by Karl Marx's wealthy collaborator, this Article from Putnam¿s Monthly, No. XXXII, August 1855 goes into some detail re numbers, composition, etc.
 
Web Site:  Frederick Engels
 

the Battle of the Golden Spurs - July 11th 1302 Wednesday, 10/30/02, 10:37 AM
 
Very few Flemings realise the importance of this battle, to which they owe the fact that they still talk Dutch and their country is not part of France.
 
From: Courtrai, Belgian Flanders
Web Site:  the Battle of the Golden Spurs - July 11th 1302
 

The Battle of Vlaardingen1018 Wednesday, 10/30/02, 10:15 AM
 
In the year 1018, the army of the German emperor was defeated by Count Dirk III, at the Dutch town of Vlaardingen. This page describes the political backgrounds leading to the battle, and the course of the battle.
 
From: Netherlands
Web Site:  The Battle of Vlaardingen
 

The Peninsular War Wednesday, 5/15/02, 8:02 AM
 
The road to war began in the autumn of 1807 when Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. After feeding more than 100,000 troops into Spain under the pretext of supporting the invasion, Napoleon deposed the existing Spanish monarch in April 1808 in order to place his own brother Joseph on the throne. Although the ensuing Spanish uprising can hardly have come as a surprise to Napoleon, he failed to see that the revolt could never be completely suppressed.
 
From: Iberia
Web Site:  The Peninsular War
 

list of Napoleonic battles Wednesday, 5/15/02, 7:54 AM
 
Web Site:  list of Napoleonic battles
 

The Napoleon series Wednesday, 5/15/02, 7:48 AM
 
huge, choronologically arranged site containing much exotic material, eg. on Napoleons campaigns and battles in the Middle East against Mamluk and Turk.
 
Web Site:  The Napoleon series
 

The Hungarian art of war Friday, 5/10/02, 8:22 AM
 
There is, unfortunately, no study describing and analysing the Hungarian art of war in its entirety. Even the Hungarian military historians have up to now failed to produce an extensive reference work and have restricted their field of interest to certain limited topics. The lack of a Hungarian military reference work does not signify neglect. The many wars in the history of Hungary, especially the Second World War, destroyed a great number of primary sources. The majority of the old sources still available are not written solely in Hungarian, but require knowledge of Latin, German, French, occasionally Italian, and Russian or other Slavic languages. Thus, a historian who would like to study the Hungarian art of war must be well acquainted not only with the general and military history of Hungary, but also with various foreign languages. Only the teamwork of several specialists could produce a book to satisfy modern requirements. Our study is not intended to be such a reference work. Our goal is to enlighten English-speaking readers, among whom may be a second or a third generation of ethnic Hungarians. Because of limited space, this work analyses only certain events and developments arbitrarily selected by the author to illustrate different aspects of the Hungarian art of war / General Mark Wayne Clark, United States Army (Retired)
 
From: Hungary
Web Site:  The Hungarian art of war
 

De Imperatoribus Romanis Thursday, 5/2/02, 9:20 AM
 
..including descriptions and some nice maps locating the battles
 
From: Mediterranean
Web Site:  Battles of the Roman & Byzantine Empires
 

De re Militari Thursday, 4/25/02, 2:33 AM
 
includes articles on: warfare in Italy 1332-3; the taking of Alexandria; Roman and Carolingian warfare.
 
Web Site:  Mediaeval and Crusading warfare
 

Liliane & Fred Funcken Friday, 4/5/02, 9:32 AM
 
an excellent site, based on the famous Funcken illustrated books, and including obscure combatants in the conflict, such as Portugal, Rumania and Serbia.
 
Web Site:  Arms and uniforms of World War One
 

Maps of the Napoleonic Wars Monday, 3/25/02, 8:05 AM
 
Web Site:  Maps of the Napoleonic Wars
 

Napoleonic literature Tuesday, 3/19/02, 3:40 AM
 
A Bibliography of Napoleonic Essays, History and Memoirs in digital form on the Internet, at http://napoleonic- literature.com/AgeOfNapoleon/Bibliography/Nonfiction. html
 
Web Site:  Napoleonic literature
 

Napoleonseries.Org Tuesday, 3/19/02, 3:25 AM
 
Numerous articles covering many different aspects of Napoleonic Campaigns and Battles spread throughout this section and the Reference section. It is highly recommended that visitors use the search engine to find documents by subject when doing research. Alternatively, the Military Cross Reference Index lists documents by subject without regard to their actual location on NapoleonSeries.org. Reader's looking for Uniform and Organizational information will find it in the Reference section.
 
Web Site:  Campaigns and battles of the Napoleonic Wars
 

Napwars Thursday, 3/14/02, 3:11 AM
 
nice and comprehensive looking site on Napoleons wars.
 
Web Site:  the Napoleonic Wars
 

Warfare in Europe 1660 - 1714 Wednesday, 12/5/01, 12:05 PM
 
including colour uniform plates, eg from Monmouths Rebellion of 1685, plus an article on the War of the Spanish Succession, and one on the storming of the Schellenberg 1704. Visually this is a very attractive and orginal site.
 
Web Site:  Warfare in Europe 1660 - 1714
 

eye-witness texts from the Napoleonic Wars Sunday, 11/25/01, 6:43 AM
 
..including one from British India 1804
 
Web Site:  eye-witness texts from the Napoleonic Wars
 

The Polish cavalry 1138 - present day Tuesday, 11/13/01, 12:02 PM
 
in Polish
 
Web Site:  The Polish cavalry 1138 - present day
 

Napoleon in battle Tuesday, 11/13/01, 11:58 AM
 
Web Site:  Napoleon in battle
 

The revolutions of 1848 Tuesday, 11/13/01, 11:16 AM
 
Web Site:  The revolutions of 1848
 

The Thracians Friday, 11/2/01, 10:30 AM
 
For two thousand years, possibly a million Thracians lived in the area now covered by Rumania, Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and northwestern Turkey. They never progressed beyond a tribal Homeric society, and were constantly at war with one another and their neighbours. They were renowned for their love of song, music, dance, colourful clothing, wine, religion, and war. They produced increadibly beautiful and expensive art. Orpheus, Ares (the god of war), and Boreas (the god of the destructive north wind) were all Thracian. Their warlike temper put them in constant demand as (sometimes highly paid) mercenaries by all the Mediterranean powers. They annihilated several Greek armies sent on colonisation attempts, and continually gave the coastal Greek cities a lot of trouble, until Athenian machinations split the Odrysian kingdom, allowing Philip of Macedon to overwhelm them. Until 46 AD (when Thrace became a Roman province) the Greeks and Romans lived in fear of a dark Thracian cloud descending from the north, devastating civilisation in the Balkans.
 
From: Bulgaria
Web Site:  The Thracians
 

Castles of Bohemia Tuesday, 10/16/01, 4:09 AM
 
photos only
 
Web Site:  Castles of Bohemia
 

Kurt Kuhlmann Monday, 10/1/01, 7:33 AM
 
What is now known as the Peloponnesian War was actually the second war between the Athenian and Spartan coalitions. The conflict between Athens and Sparta had its roots in the Persian Wars earlier in the fifth century B.C. After the Persian expedition led by Xerxes against Greece had been repulsed in 479, the Athenians assumed the leadership of the war against Persia in the Greek coastlands of Asia Minor. The Delian League, formed in 478 as an alliance against Persia, assumed the form of an empire as the Athenians began using force to prevent any of their "allies" from withdrawing from the League.
 
Web Site:  the Peloponnesian War
 

The Roman Army Monday, 9/17/01, 8:02 AM
 
The Roman Army http://www.romanarmy.com/
 
Web Site:  The Roman Army
 

Castles of the world Monday, 8/20/01, 10:28 AM
 
http://www.castles.org/ Castles of the world [nb content mainly European of course]
 
Web Site:  Castles of the world
 
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